Callitrichids: nutrition and dietary and husbandry

Meeting the nutritional needs of Callitrichids is essential to their survival and reproduction in captivity. Development of appropriate dietary guidelines involves information on 1) feeding ecology, 2) published nutrient requirements, often from studies of laboratory primates, 3) food preferences, and 4) foods available in zoos for diet formulation. This monograph is meant to provide a general overview of the feeding...

Penguins: nutrition and dietary husbandry

Provision of nutritional, behavioral, and environmental requirements is basic to the successful maintenance and reproduction of captive penguins. The following guidelines for nutrient intake and dietary husbandry were developed from studies of natural feeding ecology, published nutrient requirements of related species, information on potential penguin foods and their nutrient composition, and evidence of food preferences. Penguin foods are perishable and...

Fruit bats: nutrition and dietary husbandry

Bats (order: Chiroptera) account for one-fourth of the world’s living mammals. Their closest taxonomic relatives are still debated, but Chiroptera are commonly included in a supraordinal grouping along with the Dermoptera (flying lemurs), Primates, and Scandentia (tree shrews).58 There are over 900 species of bats, divided into two suborders: Megachiroptera, consisting of the single family Pteropodidae, and Microchiroptera, consisting of...

Asian Small-clawed otters: nutrition and dietary husbandry

To sustain a captive population of Asian small-clawed otters, the nutritional needs of the species must be met. Developing appropriate dietary guidelines requires consideration of (1) feeding ecology, (2) target dietary nutrient values, (3) food items available to zoos, and (4) information on diets offered by institutions successfully maintaining and breeding them. This paper will address these nutritional issues in...

Quality control of feedstuffs: nutrient analyses

Nutrient analyses are integral features of a quality control program designed to ensure the nutritional value and monitor nutrient composition of diets used for captive animals. Other components of a good quality control program include issues such as the presence of toxins, including mycotoxins, microbial contamination, and organophosphate/pesticide contamination. These issues will not, however, be included in this discussion. A...

Micronesian kingfishers: nutrition and dietary husbandry

Due to the rapid decline of the wild Micronesian kingfisher (Halcyon cinnamomina cinnamomina) population on Guam, few data on dietary habits and associated nutrient intakes were gathered prior to establishment of a captive population. Although further information would be very helpful in developing appropriate diets for captive birds, the species is now extinct in the wild. Therefore, the dietary guidelines...

Assessment of nutritional status of captive and free-ranging animals

The essence of nutritional assessment is to determine the adequacy of the diet so that risk of disease might be limited and productivity and longevity might be enhanced. Knowledge of nutritional status, whether of an individual or of an animal population, is important for evaluation of captive management or quality of the wild habitat. This technical paper reviews some of...

Leaf-eating primates: nutrition and dietary husbandry

Species differences in natural feeding habits and digestive system structure suggest that all captive primates should not be fed in the same manner.28 Primates whose diets consist primarily or exclusively of leaf material possess highly developed, and delicately balanced digestive systems, which enable them to utilize this abundant food source. The order of Primates consists of several species whose natural...