ZWNF SCARF Nutrition Residency Available at the Toronto Zoo – Application Deadline 31 July 2019

The Toronto Zoo is seeking qualified applicants for the ZWNF SCARF Nutrition Residency Program.   The application deadline is 31 July 2019, and the details about the Residency are below.

Nutrition Resident (2 year program)

Branch:                                  Nutrition Science Centre of Toronto Zoo

Salary:                                    $18/hour (grant funded)

Compensation:                     35 hours per week, plus medical benefits

Basic Function: The Nutrition Resident will train to become a Zoo Nutritionist, qualified for employment in an AZA/CAZA accredited facility. Reporting to the Nutritionists, this 2 year educational/learning position will allow the Nutrition Resident to participate and review the operations, managerial activities, presentations, research, developments and training programs of the Toronto Zoo Nutrition Science Centre (NSC), with the exception of designation, final authorizations and insight into confidential matters. This position will also provide support in implementing the Toronto Zoo Strategic Plan.

This position is funded by the Sue Crissey Animal Nutrition Residency Fund (SCARF) provided generously by the Zoo and Wildlife Nutrition Foundation (ZWNF).


  • Work in accordance with Toronto Zoo (TZ) Policies and Procedures and align with the goals and objectives of the TZ Strategic Plan.
  • Learn to & Assist with:
    • Manage and implement species-specific feeding programs
    • Formulate, monitor and evaluate diets of wildlife in cooperation with Nutrition, Veterinary, Welfare and Keeping Staff
    • Contribute to dietary management of clinical cases
    • Liaise with Nutrition, Veterinary, Welfare and Wildlife Care and Science staff to determine priorities for diet supply
    • Manage a feedstuff quality control program
    • Develop, organize, and maintain up to date diet records, food production systems and procedures
    • Managing and supervision of operations of a centralized diet supply
    • Setting and communicating product, nutrient and manufacturing specifications for feedstuffs
    • Review hygiene of production and maintenance of equipment and facilities
    • The oversight and application of a “fresh and preserved” browse program
    • Review and update NSC branch instructions
    • Scheduling and assessment of all assigned staff, interns, and coop students
  • Liaise professionally with departments, university research specialists, and guests of Toronto Zoo
  • Participation in supervisor/manager meetings and relevant training at Toronto Zoo
  • Communication and participation with colleagues at other accredited zoos, Taxon Advisory Groups (TAGs), Species Survival Programs (SSPs) and Wildlife Conservation organizations
  • Present research projects to the scientific community, Zoo staff, volunteers and the public
  • Seeking external funding for NSC nutrition/physiology research and development
  • The administration of the daily expenditures and the review and preparation of budgets
  • Act in compliance with WHMIS, OHSA and the Toronto Zoo Safety Policies
  • Other projects and duties as required by the Nutritionists, Director of Wildlife and Welfare, or Director of Wildlife and Science


  • An MSc (MS) or PhD degree in animal nutrition and/or physiology.
  • A professional commitment to becoming a zoo nutritionist.
  • Knowledge and experience with diet formulation, feed quality control techniques and feed hygiene.
  • Possess advanced computer skills including knowledge of feed formulation, database and statistical software.
  • Effective oral and verbal communication skills evidenced by conference presentations and/or peer-reviewed publications.
  • Experience working as part of an interdisciplinary zoo team is an asset.
  • Proven organizational ability.
  • Must possess demonstrated leadership and innovative abilities.
  • Experience with project management and reporting.
  • Working knowledge of WHMIS and OHSA.
  • Knowledge of browse plantation and its management is an asset.


Please submit your resume and cover letter no later than Wednesday 2019-07-31 to

*Please state “Application for Nutrition Residency” in the subject line of your application.

While we appreciate the interest of all applicants, only those selected for an interview will be contacted. Applicants whom are legally entitled to work in Canada will be given first consideration.

The Toronto Zoo provides accommodation for employees with disabilities, as defined under the Ontario Human Rights Code. If contacted for an interview, and you require specific accommodation for the interview process because of a disability or a medical need, then please advise the person contacting you of your requirements, so that arrangements can be made for the appropriate accommodations to be in place before you begin the interview process.

2019 ZWNF/NAG Conference on Zoo and Wildlife Nutrition

2019 NAG Conference hosted by the Saint Louis Zoo jointly with

  • American Association of Zoo Veterinarians (AAZV)
  • Association of Avian Veterinarians (AAV),
  • Association of Reptile and Amphibian Veterinarians (ARAV)
  • Association of Exotic Mammal Veterinarians (AEMV)
  • Association of Fish Veterinarians (AAFV) 

We can’t wait to host you for the Nutrition Advisory Group conference in September and share with you all the wonderful things about the city of St. Louis. After the conference, spend a few extra days to ride to the top of the arch, visit the Endangered Wolf Center, tour the Anheuser-Busch Brewery, ride the new SUPERGIRL attraction at Six Flags or enjoy a myriad of other attractions St. Louis has to offer.

Book hotel Submit your paper Registration opens July 1

Wednesday, July 3, 2019Abstract Submission Deadline


WORKSHOP “Assessing the Nutritional Welfare of Animals”

Sunday Sept 29, 2019

Both AZA and WAZA have stated that nutrition is one of the five pillars of animal welfare, and that “nutritional state” is a core component of the welfare assessment process. 

This workshop will provide key skills and tools for assessing the nutritional status and nutritional welfare of animals.


Topics will include:

  • Body condition scoring (focus on non-traditional animals such as birds, herptiles, and others)
  • Fecal condition scoring
  • Interpreting blood panels & diagnostics
  • Behavioral assessments of feeding practices and feeding behaviors
  • Fitting into the AZA welfare assessment process


Icebreaker @ City Museum

Sunday Sept 29, 2019

Get to know your fellow nutritionists and vets at this museum described as a “really cool interactive museum” (Deb Schmidt) and “wild, singular vision of an oddball artistic mind” (Wikipedia).   

Polar Bear Nutrition Guidelines

Polar bears, the most carnivorous of the Ursidae family, prey primarily on ringed seals (Best, 1985; Derocher, et. al, 2000; Stirling and Archibald, 1977).  When brought into captivity, maintaining their nutritional and mental health can be challenging.  Due to the lack of indepth species-specific research, captive polar bear diets must be based on a combination of known requirements of related...

Fecal Condition Scoring Resource Center

Fecal condition scores and fecal color provide insight into how a diet is being digested by an animal and the state of gastrointestinal health. The following fecal condition scoring scales have been obtained from a variety of sources.  We have credited the authors where we can, and encourage you to submit additional scales or corrections to attributions.  More info is at the bottom of this page.

About Fecal Condition Scoring

As zoo and wildlife nutrition professionals, we utilize all information we can gather about the animals in our care and how they process their diet, especially information that can be gathered passively, without impact to the animal.  One, often underutilized, tool that used to assess how an animal is processing their diet is a thorough examination of their feces (stool).  This can be informal and subjective (i.e. – “loose,” or “pebble-like,” or “pudding”), but those words can mean different things to different people.  If fecal consistency is used as a tool to assess how a diet is digested and/or overall animal health, an objective assessment of that consistency is necessary.  We spend so much time looking at it, scooping it, moving it, dumping it, so let’s utilize it to better care for our animals!

Fecal Condition Scoring Scales

Fecal condition scores are developed to provide an objective and commonly understood scale to assess and describe fecal material.  Obviously, this differs with the species and digestive strategy in question (“ideal” horse and cow fecal material differs in consistency).  For this reason, a variety of scales have been developed.  These scales are primarily numerical with descriptive terminology and images associated with them.  These efforts have primarily focused on domestic animals (dogs), but also have expanded to several wildlife species.

The scores range from simple 1-3, 1-5, or 1-7 point systems, to similar systems with sub-scores for each number, and systems that score from 0-100 in 25 point increments. These types of scales are currently in place for some of our carnivore species, but remain undeveloped for most of the animals with which we work.

Implications of Fecal Condition Scores

Fecal condition scores can provide insight into how a diet is being digested (otherwise utilized) by an animal (color is helpful, as well).  Low scores (unformed, loose, diarrhea, etc) may indicate digestive upset, malabsorption, and/or possible hydration issues.  On the other end of the spectrum, hard stools may indicate a lack of appropriate fiber, a water balance issue, etc.  The routine use of fecal scoring systems with animals can provide an invaluable tool to veterinarians and animal managers when “something” changes with condition, consumption, and/or overall health.

Call for More Scales (Training Opportunity)

We welcome the development of additional scales.   This is an excellent opportunity for you, your staff, volunteers, interns, and other students to get involved in the development of a basic animal husbandry management tool!  Need a fecal condition scoring scale for a species not represented?  Consider the following:

  • Look at scales already developed and determine a format that might work best for the species in question.
  • We recommend developing scales that have lower scores as drier feces and higher scores as wetter feces (so we can start to gain some consistency, building from the scales established for domestics).
  • Consider photo techniques.  Just like body condition scoring (BCS), angle, light exposure, shadows can all play a role in visual assessment (especially in a 2D picture).  Take your best shots and include language that describes and supports the image as objectively as possible.
  • Once developed and tested/used, consider not only sharing the value and utility of the scales via a NAG Conference poster or the such, but also with the resource at this site and the associated ACM for the species.
  • This a great chance for your interns, volunteers, keepers, etc to get involved in a simple, yet very useful tool, to provide more objective information and get involved in animal care!

If you know of additional published resources for this page, we encourage you to submit them for potential inclusion:

Your Name (required)

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What species is this for?

Please upload your document for review.

Please provide as much reference/citation information you can so that we can properly attribute the resource.

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We will review your submission and post if we feel it is appropriate for this site.

Guidelines for the Humane and Ethical Acquisition and Management of Vertebrate Feeder Animals (Excluding Fish)

It is vitally important that omnivorous and carnivorous species in the care of zoos and aquariums receive the appropriate foods needed to meet their nutritional and behavioral requirements. Oftentimes this entails using ‘feeder animals’ as part of their diet.  It is important that zoos and aquariums accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) make certain that feeder animals...

Body Condition Scoring Resource Center

  The following body condition scoring (BCS) scales have been obtained from a variety of sources.  We have credited the authors where we can, and encourage you to submit newly developed or modified scales or corrections to attributions.

The following body condition scoring (BCS) scales have been obtained from a variety of sources.  We have credited the authors where we can, and encourage you to submit newly developed or modified scales or corrections to attributions.

Click to expand

Pangolins, Aardvarks, & Xenarthrans (Sloths, Anteaters, Armadillos)

About BCS Scales

Body condition scoring (BCS) is a subjective measurement of an animal’s muscle definition and superficial fatty tissue.BCS for Zoo Animals

BCS has been used for many years in the livestock industry to improve the productivity, health, reproduction and longevity of herds.  BCS has become increasingly common in zoological settings for many of the same reasons.  Our greatest challenge in zoos is to develop practical systems or scales for the diverse species with which we work.  Some scales have been well-developed and validated, while others remain works in progress.  The NAG encourages the careful and thoughtful development of new scales, the refinement of those that already exist, and the diligent attention to their implementation for the good of the animals in our care.

About BCS Scales

Body condition scoring scales are numerical, and they typically range from 1 (emaciated) to either 5 or 9 (obese).  When using a 5-point scale, many people will assign half points (2.5 or 4.5 out of 5), which effectively turns the 5 point scale into a 9 point scale.  Whenever possible, we recommend the use of a 9 point scale.


Implications of BCS Scores


Low BCS scores have been associated with lowered reproductive success, poor recovery from illness, and may be a sign of disease or age.  High BCS scores have been associated with an increased risk of dystocia (difficulty giving birth), reproductive disorders, arthritis, diabetes, and other chronic conditions (Chan-McLeod et al. 1994; Burkholder 2000; Aeberhard et al. 2001; Busato et al. 2002; Berry et al. 2007; Boudreau 2012).  Despite the known risks of being too far at either end of the BCS spectrum, a BCS score should be non-judgmental.  You may be pleased that an animal recovering from a serious illness has moved from a 2 to a 3 (on a 9-pt scale), yet worry that a healthy animal has dropped from a 4 to a 3.  You may be glad that an obese animal has dropped from an 8 to a 5, yet endeavor to raise an animal preparing for hibernation from a 5 to an 8 or 9 (which may be “normal,” physiologically, for the species in question).  Keep in mind that just because it may be “normal” for a species to be over-conditioned at a specific time of year or life stage, this does not impact the BCS scale (a score of 8/9 remains 8/9, even if declared “appropriate” in terms of animal management; the scale does not “slide” to make that over-conditioned animal a 5/9). In addition, the scale is does not slide for growing, geriatric, or pregnant animals (regardless of stage of life, metabolic status, etc, the scale is designed to assess condition as objectively as possible).

Tips for Body Condition Scoring

  • BCS is best learned and implemented through consistent practice.  Often, it helps to have multiple staff involved at the start (animal managers, keepers, veterinarians, nutritionists, etc.) to make sure everyone is on the same page regarding terminology, anatomy, and the scoring system being used.  In the end, however, it is often best to have a limited number of scorers so that consistency can be maintained.  In addition, having someone who does not see the animals every day perform the scoring can be helpful.
  • Scorers should be familiar with the anatomy of each species.  If multiple scorers are utilized, they should be objectively evaluated for consistency with the same animals.  It can be helpful to note the initials of the scorer when a BCS is performed and recorded.
  • Although there are many different systems/scales (even for a single species), it is a good idea to pick one scoring system for each species and stick with it.  This allows for increased familiarity and proficiency, over time.
  • BCS is a particularly useful tool for animals that aren’t very tractable or for those who are unable to be weighed regularly.  If body weights are available, BCS acts as a complementary assessment for management purposes.  Ensure that the interval between BCS is reasonable and practical.
  • For growing animals, body weights can be paired with appropriate growth curves to assess development. However, body weights in growing individuals often vary, even within species, and may not be the best assessment of growth. In these cases, BCS can be used not only to assess appropriate growth, but also to establish target weights for individuals.
  • If your species of interest does not have a scale established, please consider developing one.  If you do, look at those that have already been thoughtfully developed. Ideal BCS scales are easy to use, distinguish biologically relevant changes in status, provide enough description that multiple observers will obtain similar results, and, ideally, have been validated through other means (ultrasound, TOBEC, necropsy).  Photographs and drawings should clearly show points of interest and be coupled with clear written descriptions.   The NAG encourages you to share your systems by presenting a poster or presentation at our conference, or publishing in another format that can be accessed by the zoo community.


    • Aeberhard K, Bruckmaier RM, Kuepfer U, and Blum JW. 2001. Milk Yield and Composition, Nutrition, Body Conformation Traits, Body Condition Scores, Fertility and Diseases in High-Yielding Dairy Cows – Part 1. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 48:97–110.
    • Berry DP, Lee JM, Macdonald KA, and Roche JR. 2007. Body Condition Score and Body Weight Effects on Dystocia and Stillbirths and Consequent Effects on Postcalving Performance. Journal of Dairy Science 90:4201–4211.
    • Boudreau L. 2012. Effect of Moderate Diet Restriction on Body Condition, Health, and Reproductive Performance in Female Mink (Neovison vison).
    • Burkholder WJ. 2000. Use of body condition scores in clinical assessment of the provision of optimal nutrition. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 217:650–654.
    • Busato A, Faissler D, Küpfer U, and Blum JW. 2002. Body condition scores in dairy cows: associations with metabolic and endocrine changes in healthy dairy cows. Journal of Veterinary Medicine Series A 49:455–460.
  • Chan-McLeod ACA, White RG, and Holleman DF. 1994. Effects of protein and energy intake, body condition, and season on nutrient partitioning and milk production in caribou and reindeer. Canadian Journal of Zoology 72:938–947.

If you know of additional published resources for this page, we encourage you to submit them for potential inclusion:

Your Name (required)

Your Email (required)

What species is this for?

Please upload your document for review.

Please provide as much reference/citation information you can so that we can properly attribute the resource.

Please reassure us you aren't a robot. Type the following:


We will review your submission and post if we feel it is appropriate for this site.

Zoo Nutrition Myth: A fruit is a fruit

The nutrient composition of domestic fruits, which have been selected and cultivated for sweetness, differs greatly from their wild counterparts.  A simple comparison of domestic vs. wild figs reveals the difference. Our domestic vegetables (though still not perfect substitutes by any means) may more closely mimic the composition of wild fruits.  For more information on fruit-free diets, see these articles: