Job Posting: San Francisco Zoo – Nutrition Kitchen Manager
Assessing the Nutritional Welfare and Status of Animals
Mazuri Technical Associate Position Opening
Polar Bear Nutrition Guidelines
Fecal Condition Scoring Resource Center
Guidelines for the Humane and Ethical Acquisition and Management of Vertebrate Feeder Animals (Excluding Fish)
Body Condition Scoring Resource Center
Zoo Nutrition Myth: A fruit is a fruit

Creation of the Zoo and Wildlife Nutrition Foundation

The Zoo and Wildlife Nutrition Foundation (ZWNF) was formed in March 2012 and became an official 501(c)3 organization a year later. The Foundation was established for the purpose of contributing expertise and providing funds to support the field of zoo and wildlife nutrition worldwide, furthering the science of zoo nutrition, facilitating the dissemination of nutrition knowledge, and developing the next...

Increasing animal food biosecurity guidelines in the presence of a foreign animal disease outbreak: Exotic Newcastle Disease

Nutritionists have emphasized the importance of quality control and food safety as a routine component of zoo animal feeding programs. Formal programs, including HACCP (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point) plans, have been implemented to evaluate the steps food goes through between receipt on-site and consumption by the animals for which we are responsible. However, until recently, zoos and aquaria...

So you want to be a zoo animal nutritionist

Well, “comparative nutrition” is the name of the game since it is estimated that the zoos of the world house over 3,000 different species [Wilson, 1992]. These include animals as different as snakes and elephants. Your challenge is to devise diets that ensure the proper nourishment of every animal. There is nothing more basic to animal health and welfare.

Efficacy of chelated minerals; review of literature

The recent report (Leach and Patton, 1997) of an assay procedure for chelated minerals removes an obstacle that has long hindered consideration of chelates by the animal feed industry. In the absence of a reliable assay, it is understandable that some would hesitate to embrace a technology that’s existence could not be proven empirically. Nonetheless, circumstantial evidence kept most minds...

Nutrition of the tamandua: I. Nutrient composition of termites (Nasutitermes spp.) and stomach content from wild tamanduas (Tamandua tetradactyla)

Arboreal termites (Nasutitermes spp.) and stomach contents from tamanduas (Tamandua tetradactyla) were collected in central Venezuela during the mid part of the dry season (March) of 1993 and 1994.Nutritional analyses were performed on each caste (workers (n = 3), soldiers (n = 5), and alates (n =1]), on mixed caste samples (n = 1), and on stomach contents from live...

Observations on weight loss and fecal consistency in giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) during three transitions from a mixed natural in-house to commercial complete diets

Giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) are highly specialized insectivores with low energy requirements compared with similar-sized mammals and an exceptional feeding apparatus and behavior.6,7 Common health problems which have been attributed to suboptimal nutrition are loose stool or diarrhea, anorexia, tongue tip constriction or vitamin K deficiency.4,8 Traditional, natural in-house diets typically include dog kibble, cereals, honey, milk products, meat and...

Feeding behavior of a herd of Masai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) at the San Deigo Zoo

The objective of this study was to determine the feeding behavior of a herd of 2.5 Masai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) (Table 1) and compare this to feeding behavior in other zoo and free-ranging giraffe. In May 2020, 16 h of observations (0500 through 2100) were divided into four time periods (early morning, late morning, early afternoon, evening) and the...

Nutritional considerations for maintaining aquarium fishes

A broad spectrum of nutritional issues faces aquariums. Although some of these issues may appear very basic, such as maintaining adequate food supplies or ensuring their adequate distribution and consumption within an exhibit, there is an underlying complexity created by the interrelationships of many nutrition-related issues within aquatic systems. This paper briefly describes several of the most prevalent issues facing...

Hand-rearing and growth of a grey seal (Halichoerus grypus)

Typical grey seal lactation lasts 15-21 days, followed by abrupt weaning by the dam and a several weeks long period of relatively significant weight loss while the pup learns to feed and fend for itself. It was with this natural history in mind that we formulated a grey seal hand-rearing protocol pending the birth of a female pup in early...

A FIELD GUIDE TO AZA ACCREDITATION FROM A NUTRITION PERSPECTIVE

The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) maintains a rigorous accreditation process in order to ensure that AZA-member zoos meet the highest standards of animal care, welfare and management; veterinary care; business management; education; and conservation responsibility. This process is managed by the Accreditation Commission, and is implemented at individual facilities via the inspection team (a team of three –...

Conversion of six domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) from commercial cat foods to a commercial domestic ferret food: a food acceptance trial

For years the Philadelphia Zoo struggled to find a simple, palatable diet for the domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) in the Philadelphia Zoo collection. The ferrets are used in the zoos education program and housed at the Children’s Zoo. Many of the animal caretakers at the Children’s Zoo are volunteers; thus, the animals are cared for by a number of...

AAFCO GUIDELINES: DEVELOPMENT OF THE GUIDELINES AND USE

The Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) sets; the nutritional adequacy guidelines for pet foods. These guidelines are developed by AAFCO subcommittees and then presented to the pet food industry and AAFCO membership for comment. Final regulations are published yearly in the “Official Publication. Association of American Feed Control Officials”.

Nutritional requirements of adult palm cockatoos

The nutrition section is based on a questionnaire that was distributed in 1992 to facilities that have bred or displayed palm cockatoos, on general knowledge of the nutritional requirements of birds (in particular successful diets and practices with psittacines), and on what has been observed with palm cockatoos at ABRC over the years.

NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF FEEDSTUFFS FED TO ANIMALS IN THE NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS OF SOUTH AFRICA

Processes of preparing balanced diets, limitations in the supply of suitable feedstuffs to captive animals and their diversity in the zoological community are special challenges to diet management. The knowledge of the nutrients needed by the animal and what feeds will supply those nutrients, is one of the most important steps in managing diet of animals in captivity. In the...

Effects of a high calcium diet on gut loading in varying ages of crickets (Acheta domestica) and mealworms (Tenebrio molitor)

Insects are a poor source of calcium. Consequently, it is a common practice for zoos to supplement them in order to provide a nutritionally balanced diet to many species. Current methods of supplementation include dusting and gut-loading. The experiment was conducted in order to determine the effect of a high calcium diet on gut loading in varying ages of crickets...

Maintenance of captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) on indigenous browse in Zimbabwe: nutrition and energetics

Poor nutrition has been implicated as a key factor contributing to the high levals of morbidity and mortality seen in captive populations of black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis (Kock et al, 1992; Miller, 1993). The translocation of four adult black rhinos (2 males, 2 females) to the Intensive Management Center at Sinamatella, Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe, in January 1995 led to...

Comparison of diets fed to Southeast Asian colobines in North American and European zoos, with emphasis on temperate browse composition.

In May and June 1994 a survey of diets fed to captive southeast Asian colobines in European (n = 12) and North American (n = 9) zoos was conducted. Most diets were very complex, comprising an average of 25 ingredients; 149 different foods were listed in responses. Comparison of diets fed showed that European zoos feed a greater variety of...

METABOLIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE EARLY ONSET OF OBESITY IN COMMON MARMOSET MONKEYS.

We examined the patterns of fat mass gain from birth to 12 months in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), and tested the hypotheses that juvenile marmosets with excess adipose tissue will display higher fasting glucose, decreased insulin sensitivity, and decreased ability to clear glucose from the blood stream. Lean and fat mass was measured by quantitative magnetic resonance at 1, 2,...

Practical Investigation of Cricket Dust Supplements Commonly Used to Enhance Diets Provided to Insectivore Species under Human Care

Amphibians and reptiles commonly managed under human care are commonly fed farmed feeder crickets (Acheta domesticus) that are deficient in calcium. Calcium deficiency can lead to the development of nutritional metabolic bone disease in animals consuming the crickets; therefore, feeder crickets are commonly supplemented with calcium by either dusting the crickets’ exoskeleton or by providing crickets with a calcium enriched...

Obesity, weight management and dietary analysis in Micronesian kingfishers (Halcyon cinnamomina cinnamomina)

Mortality in captive Micronesian kingfishers (Halcyon cinnamomina cinnamomina) is notably high in age classes that should be peak breeding years. Females, in particular, suffer high rates of mortality earlier than would be expected from examining patterns in related species. Many birds are overweight and sustained weight loss has been difficult to achieve. Body mass for the 2.2 birds in this...

Survey of circulating retinol (Vitamin A) and tocopheral (Vitamin E) concentrations in nesting marine turtles

Although marine turtles are relatively well-studied endangered and threatened species, critical discontinuities exist in the literature regarding numerous significant blood values, especially those of free-ranging populations. Gaining a better understanding of marine turtle ecological physiology is an urgent priority, considering the impact such information could have on conservation management plans and population health assessments [Bolten and Bjorndal, 1992; Raphael et...

Nutrient and fermentation characteristics of Carolina willow (Salix caroliniana) silage

The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutrient and fermentation characteristics of Carolina willow (Salix caroliniana) silage. Twelve laboratory scale silos (10.2 cm diameter x 45.7 cm long) were packed by hand with chopped willow (1.41 kg as-is, range 1.28 – 1.65 ± 0.18 SD) and opened on 0, 21, 42, and 84-d post-ensiling (three replicates per period)....

Dietary taurine supplementation and cardiac function in the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla): preliminary findings

Taurine is not considered an essential amino acid in most mammals as it can be synthesized from cysteine. Cats are an exception, lacking an enzyme necessary for this conversion and a lack of dietary taurine has been linked to central retinal degeneration and dilated cardiomyopathy. This form of feline cardiomyopathy is reversible with a dietary taurine supplement. More recently, a...

Training, enrichment and sound animal nutrition can coexist the development of a multifaceted bird feeding program at the Philadelphia Zoo

In conjunction with the development of a new training program, the Zoo developed a 4 part-feeding program for collection birds that integrates training with nutrition and enrichment. This program allowed the Zoo to better monitor the feed intake of individual birds within a mixed species exhibit and collect data on individual animals. The program placed birds into three general groupings...

Apple leaves and bark as browse items for herbivorous monogastrics under human care

Many zoological institutions are faced with challenges when developing and providing a diet for their non-ruminant browsing herbivores. The most prominent issue remains providing readily available, safe and sufficient quantities of plant material. Zoos are often forced, usually by climate, to utilize seasonally available, local, appropriate and or novel plant species in order to decrease the effort and expense required...

Small Ruminants: Digestive Capacity Differences between Frugivores and Browsers?

Small ruminants are generally classified as either browsers or frugivores. We hypothesize that browsers may be able to digest insoluble fiber diets better than can frugivores. We compared intake and digestion in the following four species: two Cervidae: red brocket (Mazama americana), body weight 20 kg and pudu (Pudu pudu), 9 kg, and two Bovidae: bay duiker (Cephalophusdorsalis), 12 kg...

Ascorbic acid, vitamin E, vitamin A, and trace elements in serum of zoo crocodilians.

A potential clinical case of ulcerative gingivitis in a male gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) initiated an investigation to determine if there was adequate ascorbic acid in the diet of crocodilians at the San Diego Zoo (SDZ), and San Diego Zoo Safari Park (SP). Reptiles can synthesize ascorbic acid and classic deficiency is rarely seen. The objective of this summary was to...

Nutritional challenges associated with feeding a multispecies exhibit: a series of case studies

Feeding multi-species exhibits can be challenging in many ways. The first is ensuring that each species, as well as, each individual has access to a diet without excessive competition from another species. The second is ensuring that animals with different nutrient requirements are able to consume the appropriate diet. The third is to ensure that animals do not consume a...