Toronto Zoo Announces ZWNF Resident
Assessing the Nutritional Welfare and Status of Animals
Polar Bear Nutrition Guidelines
Fecal Condition Scoring Resource Center
Guidelines for the Humane and Ethical Acquisition and Management of Vertebrate Feeder Animals (Excluding Fish)
Body Condition Scoring Resource Center
Zoo Nutrition Myth: A fruit is a fruit

From Farm to Fang: Sourcing Carcasses for Carnivores

Incorporating large whole prey items into the diet of carnivores (big cats, condors, and more) can provide complete nutrition – from the meat, bones, organs and even fur, as a source of fiber – with the beneficial effects of stimulating activity and promoting species-specific, naturalistic feeding behaviors. San Diego Zoo Global is evaluating potential addition of large whole prey items...

Vitamin D metabolites 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D and Kidney function indices and the relationship to diet in Goeldi’s monkeys (Callimico goeldii)

In Brookfield Zoo’s Goeldi’s monkey colony, a large number of deaths related to renal disease has been documented. Review of post-mortem results from Goeldi’s monkeys in the past 20 years revealed that in deaths of animals over 18 months of age, renal disease was a primary pathologic diagnosis. Although the nutrient requirements of Goeldi’s monkeys have not been described, these...

Body condition scoring in cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) advancements in methodology and visual tools for assessment

Body condition scoring (BCS) is the use of a standardized, non-invasive, cost-free tool for evaluating the degree of external adiposity of an individual (Bray, 2001). With proper validation, BCS can be applied to any species and utilizes a scale or spectrum of 1 to 5 or 1 to 9 to describe degree of fatness. BCS allows for identification of under-...

The effects of fiber type and fiber levels on digestibility and volatile fatty acid formation in the Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)

The diets of free-ranging orangutans are high in structural cell wall material, which comprises the fiber fraction in plants [Hamilton and Galdikas, 1994]. Microbial populations residing in the hindgut accomplish fiber digestion via fermentation. Animals use volatile fatty acids, end products of fiber fermentation, as a source of energy. Readily available produce items contain small amounts of fermentable fiber [Schmidt...

2019 ZWNF/NAG Conference on Zoo and Wildlife Nutrition

2019 NAG Conference hosted by the Saint Louis Zoo jointly with

  • American Association of Zoo Veterinarians (AAZV)
  • Association of Avian Veterinarians (AAV),
  • Association of Reptile and Amphibian Veterinarians (ARAV)
  • Association of Exotic Mammal Veterinarians (AEMV)
  • Association of Fish Veterinarians (AAFV) 

We can’t wait to host you for the Nutrition Advisory Group conference in September and share with you all the wonderful things about the city of St. Louis. After the conference, spend a few extra days to ride to the top of the arch, visit the Endangered Wolf Center, tour the Anheuser-Busch Brewery, ride the new SUPERGIRL attraction at Six Flags or enjoy a myriad of other attractions St. Louis has to offer.

Book hotel Submit your paper [closed] Register now

Wednesday, July 3, 2019Abstract Submission Deadline

GENERAL SCHEDULE

 

WORKSHOP “Assessing the Nutritional Health & Welfare of Animals”

Sunday Sept 29, 2019

Both AZA and WAZA have stated that nutrition is one of the five pillars of animal welfare, and that “nutritional state” is a core component of the welfare assessment process. 

This workshop will provide key skills and tools for assessing the nutritional status and nutritional welfare of animals.

 

Topics will include:

  • Body condition scoring (focus on non-traditional animals such as birds, herptiles, and others)
  • Fecal condition scoring
  • Interpreting blood panels & diagnostics
  • Behavioral assessments of feeding practices and feeding behaviors
  • Fitting into the AZA welfare assessment process

 

Icebreaker @ City Museum

Sunday Sept 29, 2019

Get to know your fellow nutritionists and vets at this museum described as a “really cool interactive museum” (Deb Schmidt) and “wild, singular vision of an oddball artistic mind” (Wikipedia).   

Viverrid digestive physiology: comparison of binturongs (Artictis binturong) and dwarf mongoose (Helgale parvula)

A preliminary investigation was conducted to compare intake and digestion in the largest and smallest members of the Viverridae family, highly frugivorous binturongs (Arctictis binturong; n=2) and the more carnivorous dwarf mongoose (Helogale parvula; n=6) housed in groups. Normal zoo diets were monitored over two 4-day periods, with total feed intake and fecal output measured.

Food safety training for keepers in decentralized zoo kitchens

A food safety program was developed for training keepers in a decentralized zoo kitchen system. Instruction covered food safety standards of the state of Illinois; reviewed information regarding USDA and AZA food safety standards; and provided keepers with action-based steps they could take to prevent food safety concerns. In addition, lead keepers had separate sessions to ensure food safety standards...

Conversion of six domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) from commercial cat foods to a commercial domestic ferret food: a food acceptance trial

For years the Philadelphia Zoo struggled to find a simple, palatable diet for the domestic ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) in the Philadelphia Zoo collection. The ferrets are used in the zoos education program and housed at the Children’s Zoo. Many of the animal caretakers at the Children’s Zoo are volunteers; thus, the animals are cared for by a number of...

Hand-rearing and growth of two ibex (Capra ibex nubiana) kids from 24 hours to weaning at 105 days of age

Two male ibex kids were hand-reared from approximately 24 h after birth. Goat production and exotic captive small ruminant management systems were researched and compared to National Research Council (NRC) energy requirements in order to design a strategy for optimal feeding and growth. Weights were collected on each ibex daily or every other day throughout rearing to evaluate gain and...

Utilization of pork and pork by-products for nutritional management of captive exotic felids

Currently beef and horse comprise the majority of raw meat diet formulations marketed by US companies manufacturing and supplying carnivore diets to zoological institutions. Pork-based diets have traditionally not been fed to managed exotic carnivores, primarily because of microbial and pathogenic concerns, and nutrient digestibility of pork has not been evaluated in captive exotic felids. Additionally, the pork industry currently...

Carotenoid Gut-Loading of Crickets and Mealworms

The lack of diversity of invertebrate prey items available to feed captive animals limits available nutrients, requiring manipulation of the diet fed to these prey items prior to offering to other animals. Of late, much of the gut-loading research and recommendations focused on correcting the Ca:P imbalance inherent to the insects available through commercial production. More recently, attention has shifted...

Zoo guidelines for keeping large felids in captivity

Within the family Felidae, determination of minimum husbandry needs of large cats is variable because of differences in size, morphology, and behavior. For purposes of this discussion, a large felid is identified as any species of cat belonging to the genus Panthera, including: lion, P. leo; tiger, P. tigris; jaguar, P. onca; leopard, P. pardus; and snow leopard, Uncia uncia;...

Variation in voluntary intake of feeds by captive giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis): Implications for meeting nutrient requirements

Data prompting evaluation of captive giraffe feed selection were obtained from a modified reversal study investigating the effects of dietary physical form and carbohydrate profile. Six non-lactating adult female giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) were used in seven 21-day periods. Supplements were: an experimental non-pelleted browser supplement (EF) and a mixture of 75% Mazuri Browser Breeder (PMI Nutrition International, LLC, Brentwood,...

Financial aspects of zoo diet management

Food purchases tend to be one of the greatest expenses, beyond salaries and benefits, for the maintenance of any zoo collection. For this reason, the commissary/food budget is one that receives a lot of attention during the budget planning process. Upon each accreditation inspection, the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) requires proof of financial stability, including insurance coverage, evidence...

Paca feeding in captivity

The paca (Cuniculus paca) is the biggest rodent in Costa Rica. During 2009 and 2010, a national survey was carried out to determine the actual nutritional management of this species. Diet ingredients and proportions were surveyed by region and the composition categorized and analyzed for 64 farms and 558 animals. Diets offered varied in ingredients including produce (fruits, tubercules, legumes),...

The impact of nutritional factors on the development of phosphatic uroliths using meat goats as a model for captive giraffes

Obstructive urolithiasis is a documented problem in domestic ruminants, such as the meat goat, and exotic herbivores, such as captive giraffe. These two species develop phosphorus based uroliths and are considered browsing ruminants. Due to the logistical challenges of performing studies with captive giraffe, a metabolic trial was conducted using meat goats as a model. The intent of this study...

Preliminary report on the quantification of ultraviolet-B radiation from artificial light sources over time

The term “metabolic bone disease” encompasses a variety of bone-related diseases, including rickets, osteomalacia, osteopenia, and osteoporosis, all of which are associated with a weakening of bone structure. Metabolic bone disease is considered a serious health problem among certain species of captive reptiles. The occurrence of metabolic bone disease is believed to be due to insufficient concentrations of circulating vitamin...

Case report: enhancing the vitamin E status and coloration of a Southern lanner falcon (Falco biarmicus biarmicus)

The death of a Lanner falcon (Falco biarmicus biarmicus) in January 2010 with low liver vitamin E (0.90 mg/kg wet wt.) suggested that the bird was in poor health with a marginal diet. The liver vitamin E concentration of poultry receiving adequate dietary vitamin E is 15-40 ?g/g wet weight.8 Animal care staff wanted to ensure the diet of the...

Apple leaves and bark as browse items for herbivorous monogastrics under human care

Many zoological institutions are faced with challenges when developing and providing a diet for their non-ruminant browsing herbivores. The most prominent issue remains providing readily available, safe and sufficient quantities of plant material. Zoos are often forced, usually by climate, to utilize seasonally available, local, appropriate and or novel plant species in order to decrease the effort and expense required...

Effects of a high calcium diet on gut loading in varying ages of crickets (Acheta domestica) and mealworms (Tenebrio molitor)

Insects are a poor source of calcium. Consequently, it is a common practice for zoos to supplement them in order to provide a nutritionally balanced diet to many species. Current methods of supplementation include dusting and gut-loading. The experiment was conducted in order to determine the effect of a high calcium diet on gut loading in varying ages of crickets...

The Care and Management of Chimpanzees in Captive Environments

Chimpanzee diets in captivity have changed dramatically over the course of the last 90+ years. The lack of adequate foods to meet the nutritional needs of the species was a major contributing factor to chimpanzee mortality in the early years of zoo management. The development of what was thought to be a nutritionally complete primate diet, or monkey chow, has...

Managing zoo diet information: introducing the next generation of software

We all want to feed our animals well. Yet within zoos and aquariums different stakeholders concentrate on different aspects of feeding; some may be mostly concerned with the nutrient content, others with the way food is presented. The physical and behavioral health of animals may be a principal focus and sustainability, efficiency and costs are becoming increasingly significant drivers. Obviously...

Feeding behavior of a herd of Masai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) at the San Deigo Zoo

The objective of this study was to determine the feeding behavior of a herd of 2.5 Masai giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi) (Table 1) and compare this to feeding behavior in other zoo and free-ranging giraffe. In May 2020, 16 h of observations (0500 through 2100) were divided into four time periods (early morning, late morning, early afternoon, evening) and the...

Foundation and function of EAZA Nutrition Group (ENG), providing specialist support for European conservation breeding programmes

Specialist subject advisors (e.g. veterinary, scientific) are increasingly being added to steering committees for zoo-based conservation breeding programmes worldwide; several advisors in nutrition have already been informally appointed within European programmes. Following the lead of AZA Nutrition Advisory Group, the newly inaugurated EAZA Nutrition Group (ENG) seeks to facilitate improved communication and coordination among nutritionists and those requiring nutrition information,...

METABOLIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE EARLY ONSET OF OBESITY IN COMMON MARMOSET MONKEYS.

We examined the patterns of fat mass gain from birth to 12 months in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus), and tested the hypotheses that juvenile marmosets with excess adipose tissue will display higher fasting glucose, decreased insulin sensitivity, and decreased ability to clear glucose from the blood stream. Lean and fat mass was measured by quantitative magnetic resonance at 1, 2,...

Napoleon didn’t conquer Europe by feeding his army rotten tomatoes or how to get the most from your produce investment

Proper handling and storage of produce items can increase shelf life thus positively impacting budget. At the Saint Louis Zoo we have tried various approaches to storage and have a system that works well for us. From which items to hold in the Kitchen area and to which produce items to hold in the cooler and the storage method that extends product integrity,...

The Influence of Giraffe Behavior on Parasite Load: Impact of Husbandry Modifications at Busch Gardens Tampa Bay

Haemonchus contortus is a gastrointestinal parasite that lives in the abomasal mucosa of ruminants. Similar to cattle, giraffe housed in warm climates are prone to parasitism by stronglyes such as Haemonchus contortus. At Busch Gardens in Tampa, Florida a behavioral study and retrospective parasite survey was conducted to determine if a correlation exists between giraffe behavior, feeding methods, and parasite...

The formulation of an artificial diet for captive kiwi (Apteryx mantelli)

Population numbers of North Island brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) are estimated to have almost halved in the last decade. Despite some success of captive breeding, captive bred kiwi suffer higher embryonic and adult mortality rates, smaller eggs and lower hatching rates than wild kiwi. A major contributor to these problems is likely to be diet. The current diet fed to...

Commissary standards and assessment

The Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden (CZBG) developed the “standards and assessment program” (S&A) as a coaching tool to assist the curatorial staff and supervisory keepers in animal operations at the zoo. This program tailors each section to meet the needs of that animal area following the standards set up by United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) and Association of...