Dietary iron absoption ant the role of tannins in Eastern (Diceros bicornis michaeli) and Southern black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor)

Three diet treatments were fed for at least 6 months at 6 institutions to a total of 11 black rhinoceros to assess the effect of tannins on iron status. Diet treatments were: 1.) a pellet/mixed hay diet, which reflected the diet historically fed; 2.) a pellet/mixed hay diet with quebracho added to the pellets as a source of iron binding...

Hemochromatosis in bottlenose dolphins: clinical significance, risk factors, and treatment suggest non-hereditary etiology

Botttlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) can have hemochromatosis (iron overload), evidenced by excessive iron deposition in the liver, transferrin saturation >80%, and rising high serum iron levels (>300 ug/dl) responsive to phlebotomy (Johnson et al., 2009). Dolphins with hemochromatosis have chronic, phasic elevations in aminotransferases (Venn-Watson et al., 2008). Compared to age and sex-matched healthy controls, these dolphins are also more...

A retrospective investigation of the prevalence and significance of hemosiderosis in captive pinnipeds

Iron is a trace element required for the synthesis of haemoglobin and a number of energetic reactions. In most species, iron uptake is primarily regulated by the absorption of iron and protein-addition conversion to ferritin in the mucosal layers of the intestines and the sloughing of mucosal layers when iron levels are replete. However, if this system becomes imbalanced as...

Determination of tannin levels in various plants and their possible effect on iron chelation in lemurs

Lemurs are one of several species that can suffer from excess iron accumulation in tissues, termed hemosiderosis. The more severe form, hemochromatosis, develops when hemosiderosis is accompanied by functional or morphologic evidence of iron toxicity and may result in clinical disease and death. Organs most often affected include the liver, heart, spleen, and gastrointestinal tract. The pathology of this problem/disease...

Summary of mineral and iron binding polyphenolic plant compound levels in diets offered captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in 3 zoos and 1 ranch in Texas

Hemosiderosis is commonly noted in captive black rhinoceros but not free-ranging animals. Animals held in a ranch setting, offered a diet containing at least 46% browse on a dry matter basis, do not experience the same health problems as animals in zoos. It is known that plants contain polyphenolic compounds that can bind iron and make it unavailable for absorption....

The effect of tannin on the in vitro solubilization of iron

The absorption of dietary iron can be greatly influenced by other constituents in the diet, such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and tannins. Ascorbic acid increases the bioavailability of iron by converting Fe3+ to Fe2+, while tannins can reduce the bioavailability of iron by binding to it. Captive herbivorous animals are often impacted by either the addition or absence of...

Hornbill diets at San Diego Zoo Global: a review

Hornbills (Bucerotidae) are a family of birds that include 14 genera and 54 species spanning sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia.7 They are easily identified by their long decurved bill and casque.7 The smallest hornbills range in body weight from 83-135 g (Black dwarf-hornbill, Tockus hartlaubi; Red-billed dwarf hornbill, Tockus camurus) while the largest can reach body weights of 2230-4580 g...

Variation in serum ferritin, serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC) and percent transferrin saturation in Northern Fur Seals: a retrospective study

Hemochromatosis is an excessive accumulation of iron in tissues, particularly liver, and is associated with the development of hepatic lesions. The term hemosiderosis is used when there are no toxic effects of the iron accumulation. Both conditions have been observed in free-ranging and captive specimens of many species (Lowensteine and Munson 1999). Histopathologic analysis of tissues obtained from two aged...

Hemochromatosis (Iron Storage Disease) in Fruit Bats

Six Egyptian fruit bats (Rousettus aegyptiacus) were either found dead or presented with chronic liver disease associated with accumulations of iron (Fe) within the liver as high as 2.3% dry weight. Two other fruit bat species, the Indian flying fox (Pteropus giganteus) and the grey- headed flying fox (Pteropus poliocephalus), also had elevated liver Fe levels but without clinical evidence...

Iron Storage Disease in Lemurs

A syndrome of excessive iron accumulation (hemosiderosis) was first recognized in lemurs as early as the 1960’s but descriptive reports of the condition were no t published until the 1980’s.1,4,11 The most well-known of these is a publication by Spelman et al. (1989) who reported 100% incidence of hemosiderosis in captive lemurs from the institution in her study.11 As a...