Nutrient composition of American flamingo crop milk


Ward AM, Hunt A, Maslanka M, Brown C. 2001. Nutrient composition of American flamingo crop milk. In Edwards M, Lisi KJ, Schlegel ML, Bray RE, Eds., Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Zoo and Wildlife Nutrition, AZA Nutrition Advisory Group, Lake Buena Vista, FL.


Crop milk samples (30 mL) were collected from juvenile (6-7 wks old) American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber, n = 14) in the Ria Lagartos Biosphere Reserve (El Cuyo, Mexico) on the northern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula. The samples were analyzed for dry matter, crude protein, fat, minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, sodium, potassium, iron, copper, molybdenum, zinc), vitamin A, vitamin E, lutein and zeaxanthin, beta-cryptoxanthin, echinenone, canthaxanthin, and beta-carotene. In addition, morphometric measurements and blood samples were taken at the time of sample collection. This information will allow us to learn more about crop  milk and avian lactation, and, most practically, to aid in flamingo hand-rearing efforts.

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