Development of an intranet browse identification reference

The general term “browse” refers to harvest plant materials that are including as a component of a captive animal’s diet. These materials may satisfy a nutritional, behavioral or combination of components desired in the feeding program. The Zoological Society of San Diego (ZSSD) maintains a comprehensive list of plant species (browse) which may be used with the animal collections, however...

Diet and feed adjustments for ungulates at the Taipei Zoo

Currently, the Taipei Zoo exhibits and cares for 377 types of ungulates, representing 11 families, of 44 species. Since 1997, the zoo has monitored and adjusted the types of feed offered to our ungulates. Diet formulas began with fresh forage and edible hay, which included six kinds of fresh grass, branches, and leaves as shown in Table 1.

Nutrient composition of selected tropical browse species fed to zoo animals in Hawaii

The objective of this project was to determine the nutrient composition of selected browse species available and fed at the Honolulu Zoo in Hawaii, and to facilitate their use in more balanced zoo rations there and at other tropically located zoos. Samples of 26 different materials including; apple banana, areca palm, hula bamboo, golden bamboo, cape honeysuckle, coral hibiscus, dwarf...

Nutrient composition of American flamingo crop milk

Crop milk samples (30 mL) were collected from juvenile (6-7 wks old) American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber, n = 14) in the Ria Lagartos Biosphere Reserve (El Cuyo, Mexico) on the northern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula. The samples were analyzed for dry matter, crude protein, fat, minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, sodium, potassium, iron, copper, molybdenum, zinc), vitamin A,...

Summary of mineral and iron binding polyphenolic plant compound levels in diets offered captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in 3 zoos and 1 ranch in Texas

Hemosiderosis is commonly noted in captive black rhinoceros but not free-ranging animals. Animals held in a ranch setting, offered a diet containing at least 46% browse on a dry matter basis, do not experience the same health problems as animals in zoos. It is known that plants contain polyphenolic compounds that can bind iron and make it unavailable for absorption....

A comparison of dietary intake in captive, Jamaican Iguanas (Cyclura collei) at four United States zoos

The dietary intake of captive, Jamaican iguanas (Cyclura collei) was measured at four institutions including four U.S. zoos, Indianapolis Zoo (n = 1, 1.2 iguanas), Fort Worth Zoo (n = 2, 2.2 iguanas), Sedgwick County Zoo (n = 3, 1.2 iguanas), and San Diego Zoo – CRES (n = 3, 3.3 iguanas). The diets offered at all four zoos consisted...

Purchasing forage for a diverse group of exotic animals beyond the nutrient analysis

The approach of this paper is from a forage utilization perspective as it pertains to providing forage for the diverse, and often non-food related, purposes of a zoological institution. The paper covers aspects of forage production often over-looked or poorly understood by zoo professionals yet vital to the health and wellbeing of our captive collections. The purpose of the paper...

CD-ROM teaching unit on the digestive system of vertebrates

The present-day vertebrates are comprised of approximately 45,000 species of fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals that have adapted to a wide-range of freshwater, marine, and terrestrial habitats. Their digestive system provides for the assimilation of the energy and nutrients required for maintenance, growth, and reproduction. This is accomplished by complex series of episodic events that reduce food to a...

Nutritional status in captive Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncates)

Nutritional status of captive dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) was examined using biochemical analysis. Voluntary blood samples, obtained from four healthy captive bottlenose dolphins at Brookfield Zoo, were analyzed for vitamin D metabolites [25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D], lipids (total cholesterol, triacylglycerides, HDL-cholesterol, and LDL-cholesterol), and fatty acids. Fish fed to these dolphins were analyzed for dry matter, crude protein, fat, energy, vitamin D,...

Effect of diet on body composition and growth parameters in juvenile seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) at the Toronto Zoo

To date, all information on the feeding of seahorses (Hippocampus spp.) is contained in fish hobbyist magazines emphasizing acceptance of feed rather than its nutritive value. The juvenile stage is most critical in seahorse development and the most problematic in terms of feeding. This study compared the effects of two typical diets, Neomysis integer and Mysis relicta, on the body...

The effects of fiber type and fiber levels on digestibility and volatile fatty acid formation in the Orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus)

The diets of free-ranging orangutans are high in structural cell wall material, which comprises the fiber fraction in plants [Hamilton and Galdikas, 1994]. Microbial populations residing in the hindgut accomplish fiber digestion via fermentation. Animals use volatile fatty acids, end products of fiber fermentation, as a source of energy. Readily available produce items contain small amounts of fermentable fiber [Schmidt...

Nutrition of the enigmatic browser: Comparative bioenergetics, digestion and feeding of northern versus tropical ungulates

Wild ungulates use time, habitat, and food in complex ways in relation to social, security, comfort, and bioenergetic needs to optimization fitness from decisions during day-to-day living. Species in highly seasonal environments experience changes in nutritional requirements in association with adaptations to quality and quantity of available food. Evolutionary implications are closely tied to seasonal bioenergetic cycles and become extremely...

Comparative protein requirements of three species of parrots with distinct dietary specializations

Highly specialized nectarivorous and frugivorous birds have overcome the constraints of low dietary protein levels. Proposed physiological mechanisms that enable such specialists to subsist on low-protein diets include low protein requirements, low endogenous protein losses, high feed intake, and high protein digestibilities. These traits were compared among nectarivorous red lories (Eos bornea), frugivorous Pesquet’s parrots (Psittrichas fulgidus), and granivorous budgerigars...

A summary of the role of The American Registry Professional Animal Scientists

The American Registry of Professional Animal Scientists (ARPAS) is a body that promotes the professionalism of its animal scientists members. Workers in several fields can apply to have their credentials and experience recognized by their peers. After 10 years of different embodiments and halting progress, ARPAS was launched in 1984, operating without a loss in any year since. Sustaining societies...

The effect of tannin on the in vitro solubilization of iron

The absorption of dietary iron can be greatly influenced by other constituents in the diet, such as ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and tannins. Ascorbic acid increases the bioavailability of iron by converting Fe3+ to Fe2+, while tannins can reduce the bioavailability of iron by binding to it. Captive herbivorous animals are often impacted by either the addition or absence of...

Metabolic Bone Disease in lizards: Prevalence and potential for monitoring bone health

A consensus that metabolic bone disease (MBD) is the nutritional pathology (NP) most likely to occur in captive lizards was apparent in a study at the Ontario Veterinary College Teaching Hospital (OVCTH) and in two surveys on NP in accredited zoos in Canada and the United States. The prevalence, pathogensis and diagnosis of MBD relative to the OVCTH and zoological...

The influence of plant chemistry on browse choice in Angolan Colobus Monkeys (Colobus angolensis palliates)

Browse is included in the diets of many primate species, especially those that consume large portions of leaf material under free-ranging conditions. The challenge of providing a reliable source of browse is complicated by the limited availability of plant species that are nutritionally adequate, palatable, and available in suitable quantities to meet the demands of the animal collection.

Considerations for ethical acquisition and treatment of feeder animals in zoos

Zoos, as a rule, have stringent standards for acquisition and care of the animals in their collection. Following this philosophy, it also is important to heed similar considerations for “feeder” animals. Feeder animals are those utilized to feed carnivorous and omnivorous collection animals that consume prey items as all, or part, of their diet. The purpose of this discussion is...

Evolution of a browse database- a global application

Browse – the new “buzzword” within zoological communities. Browse can include shrubs, trees, woody vines and stems, including various plant parts like berries and flowers. Browse is used for nutrient supplementation, behavioral enrichment and for some animal species it is life. Browse can also mean death to animals if a wrong plant or part is fed. With all of these...

Ingestion of Viburnum x rhytidophylloides ‘Alleghany’ potentially lethal to White-Mantled Black Colobus (Colobus guereza)

In December of 2000, three white-mantled black colobus (Colobus guereza) housed at the Denver Zoological Gardens began showing indications of pain, and as a result, were removed from their facility and hospitalized. One animal died of gastric ulcers, however the others recovered with treatment. Light microscopic evaluation of gastric biopsies from one of the monkeys, showed inflammation of the mucosal...

Effects of a high calcium diet on gut loading in varying ages of crickets (Acheta domestica) and mealworms (Tenebrio molitor)

Insects are a poor source of calcium. Consequently, it is a common practice for zoos to supplement them in order to provide a nutritionally balanced diet to many species. Current methods of supplementation include dusting and gut-loading. The experiment was conducted in order to determine the effect of a high calcium diet on gut loading in varying ages of crickets...

Survey of circulating retinol (Vitamin A) and tocopheral (Vitamin E) concentrations in nesting marine turtles

Although marine turtles are relatively well-studied endangered and threatened species, critical discontinuities exist in the literature regarding numerous significant blood values, especially those of free-ranging populations. Gaining a better understanding of marine turtle ecological physiology is an urgent priority, considering the impact such information could have on conservation management plans and population health assessments [Bolten and Bjorndal, 1992; Raphael et...

The interaction between factors that affect the daily time spent grazing by ruminants

The animal-plant interaction between grazing ruminants and the grasses and forbs that make up temperate pasture swards is complex. The interaction is ultimately expressed in each mouthful of herbage (bite) ingested by the grazing animal. Each bite is characterised by quantity (bite weight), quality (species composition, plant part, plant maturity), and the time taken to apprehend, crop, chew and swallow...

Evaluation of a dietary alternative to fish for California Sea Lions (Zalophus c. californianus)

Obtaining a suitable diversity of food fish for feeding marine mammals is a major challenge for zoological institutions and marine parks. In recent years, several species of fish, which were once considered staples in diets of captive marine mammals are no longer available due to over-harvesting [Davis, 1999]. Although government agencies have taken measures to address this decline in natural...

Influence of fiber source on apparent digestibility, rate passage and fecal consistency in small felids fed a beef-based carnivore diet

In a crossover design, four adult animals, a male and female Amur leopard cat (Prionailurus bengalensis euptilura) and a male and female Turkmenistan caracal (Caracal caracal michaelis) were fed three fresh-frozen beef based diets containing different sources of fiber; beet pulp (BP), fructooligosaccharides/cellulose blend (FOS), and wood cellulose (Solka Floe®) (WC). Assessment included food intake, fecal consistency, animal body weight,...

Role of nutrition programs in zoological institutions

There is nothing more fundamental to the care of wild animals in captivity than the need to provide an adequate and appropriate diet. The impact of nutrition on the physical and psychological health, productivity and longevity of wild animals in captivity has been clearly recognized. Contributions to in situ conservation programs made by individuals professionally trained in nutritional sciences, and...

Nutrition + Environmental Enrichment = Animal Well-Being

The nutritional management of different species requires modifications in the shape and presentation of the diet, not only due to the idiosyncrasy of the animal but also due to the natural way to obtain the food. When possible, captive animals should be fed natural diets; however availability and cost make it very difficult for a wild diet to be duplicated...

Reorganization and development of the nutrition department at the Buenos Aires Zoo (1991- 2001)

The objective of this presentation is to describe modifications of nutritional management at the Buenos Aires Zoo from 1991 to present (2001). As with other Latin American zoos, our resources are limited; however we have made strong efforts to overcome financial, technical and organizational difficulties. In 1991, the basic management was in the hands of the keeper, who decided what...