SCARF Fundraiser – Monday Sept 30
2019 ZWNF/NAG Conference on Zoo and Wildlife Nutrition
Polar Bear Nutrition Guidelines
Fecal Condition Scoring Resource Center
Guidelines for the Humane and Ethical Acquisition and Management of Vertebrate Feeder Animals (Excluding Fish)
Body Condition Scoring Resource Center
Zoo Nutrition Myth: A fruit is a fruit

Calibration development for rapid assessment of fish species for dolphins in human care using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS)

Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is a fast, accurate, and cost effective method for analyzing organic compounds. Dolphins as a species are highly sensitive to changes in the energy and nutrient contents of their diets. We analyzed monthly samples (n=148) of capelin, herring, and squid for dry matter, crude protein and crude fat. The dried and ground samples were returned...

Formulating Diets for Tamandua (T. tetradactyla) in Brazilian Zoos

Diet has long been suspected to be the primary cause of Tamanduas inability to thrive in some Brazilian zoos. It is known that free ranging animals consume diets consisting of termites and ants. Unfortunately, little is known about the nutrient requirements of insectivorous species. In addition, incomplete data exist on the nutrient content of many prey species. An assessment of...

Monitoring Food Intake of a Pair of Major Mitchell’s Cockatoos, (Cacatua leadbeateri)

The food consumption of a pair of Major Mitchell’s Cockatoos, Cacatua leadbeateri, (Leadbeater’s or Pink Cockatoos) was monitored at the Metro Toronto Zoo (MTZ). The diet included a commercial pellet, MTZ “psittacine mix”, mixed whole fruits and dried fruits and a seed mixture, the latter historically offered for behavioural enrichment. The diet had been offered to MTZ psittacines for several...

Wrobel ML, Twinney JK, Valdes EV. 1995. Monitoring food intake of a pair of Major Mitchell’s Cockatoos, (Cacatua leadbeateri) in Proceedings of the First AZA Nutrition Advisory Group Conference, Scarborough, OT Canada.

Foundation and function of EAZA Nutrition Group (ENG), providing specialist support for European conservation breeding programmes

Specialist subject advisors (e.g. veterinary, scientific) are increasingly being added to steering committees for zoo-based conservation breeding programmes worldwide; several advisors in nutrition have already been informally appointed within European programmes. Following the lead of AZA Nutrition Advisory Group, the newly inaugurated EAZA Nutrition Group (ENG) seeks to facilitate improved communication and coordination among nutritionists and those requiring nutrition information,...

Nutrient composition of whole crayfish eaten by hellbender salamanders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis spp.)

Four species of native Missouri crayfish identified as foods of the Ozark hellbender salamander (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi), were analyzed for nutrient content including water, proximate composition (crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash), as well as vitamin A, vitamin E, total carotenoids, and select mineral concentrations. Additionally, fatty acids in crayfish were examined and compared with krill as a...

Basics of ruminant animal nutrition

Cellulose is the main constituent of plant cell walls and is the most abundant carbohydrate on earth. With exception of some snails and arthropods, animals lack the necessary enzymes for the digestion of cellulose. Bacteria and fungi are the main cellulose digesters. Animals have coevolved with their feeds, and by different strategies, herbivores use plants as source of most nutrients....

Reorganization and development of the nutrition department at the Buenos Aires Zoo (1991- 2001)

The objective of this presentation is to describe modifications of nutritional management at the Buenos Aires Zoo from 1991 to present (2001). As with other Latin American zoos, our resources are limited; however we have made strong efforts to overcome financial, technical and organizational difficulties. In 1991, the basic management was in the hands of the keeper, who decided what...

Optimum feeding and dietary formulation for ornamental fish species

The formulation of adequate diets for organisms in an aquatic environment gives a greater challenge to those involved in their care, compared to terrestrial species. The aim of this paper was to highlight all the factors which should be considered when formulating a maintenance feeding program for ornamental fish. The provision of energy and other nutrients to poikilothermic animals can...

Effects of a high calcium diet on gut loading in varying ages of crickets (Acheta domestica) and mealworms (Tenebrio molitor)

Insects are a poor source of calcium. Consequently, it is a common practice for zoos to supplement them in order to provide a nutritionally balanced diet to many species. Current methods of supplementation include dusting and gut-loading. The experiment was conducted in order to determine the effect of a high calcium diet on gut loading in varying ages of crickets...

Designing analytical software for global data sharing of rhinoceros browse and diet information

As part of an ongoing effort to develop information resources and tools integrating valuable global research, we present a database and software model that integrates feeding habits, browse usage information, nutrient composition of native and substitute foods, and captive diet records for rhinoceros species. Screen displays and output reports include: Browses/Forages Offered, Browse/Forage Nutrient Composition, Diets Fed by Zoological Facility,...

Hand-rearing hoofstock: a team approach

There are many reasons for hand-rearing neonatal hoofstock in captivity. From 1989 until 1992 the Fort Worth Zoo had no male springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) or dama gazelles (Gazella dama). In 1993, when males were added to these herds, offspring began to be produced. Calves were rejected by first time mothers who had also been hand-reared, and by dams with a...

A FIELD GUIDE TO AZA ACCREDITATION FROM A NUTRITION PERSPECTIVE

The Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA) maintains a rigorous accreditation process in order to ensure that AZA-member zoos meet the highest standards of animal care, welfare and management; veterinary care; business management; education; and conservation responsibility. This process is managed by the Accreditation Commission, and is implemented at individual facilities via the inspection team (a team of three –...

Gastritis in the Short-Beaked Echidna (Tachyglossus aculeatus): Parallels with Ruminal Acidosis in Herbivores and Implications for the Understanding of Echidna Digestive Physiology

Short-beaked echidnas (Tachyglossus aculeatus) are endemic to Australia and south-eastern New Guinea (Indonesia and Papua New Guinea). In mainland Australia they feed primarily on termites. Echidnas have a single chambered stomach which is entirely lined with squamous (non-glandular) cells, and is histologically analogous to the rumen. The short-beaked echidna stomach has historically been understood to function as a grinding or...

Browse species preference and palatability of Colobus guereza kikuyuensis at the Denver Zoological Gardens

In the wild, folivorous primates have access to leaves of many different species. At the Denver Zoological Gardens (DZG), in Denver, Colorado, Colobus guereza kikuyuensis primates consume most vegetation presented to them, thus maintenance of vegetation in an animal exhibit is challenging. It is observed that insufficient browse often results in behavior concerns such as pacing or lack of mental...

Food safety training for keepers in decentralized zoo kitchens

A food safety program was developed for training keepers in a decentralized zoo kitchen system. Instruction covered food safety standards of the state of Illinois; reviewed information regarding USDA and AZA food safety standards; and provided keepers with action-based steps they could take to prevent food safety concerns. In addition, lead keepers had separate sessions to ensure food safety standards...

Purchasing forage for a diverse group of exotic animals beyond the nutrient analysis

The approach of this paper is from a forage utilization perspective as it pertains to providing forage for the diverse, and often non-food related, purposes of a zoological institution. The paper covers aspects of forage production often over-looked or poorly understood by zoo professionals yet vital to the health and wellbeing of our captive collections. The purpose of the paper...

Role of nutrition programs in zoological institutions

There is nothing more fundamental to the care of wild animals in captivity than the need to provide an adequate and appropriate diet. The impact of nutrition on the physical and psychological health, productivity and longevity of wild animals in captivity has been clearly recognized. Contributions to in situ conservation programs made by individuals professionally trained in nutritional sciences, and...

Development of an Artificial Diet to Support Conservation Efforts of the Atala Hairstreak Butterfly (Eumaeus atala)

The rare atala hairstreak butterfly (Eumaeus atala) is native to Florida, and coontie, a small cycad, is its only native host plant. In the early 1900’s, coontie was eradicated due to unsustainable agricultural practices, so atala populations plummeted.  The butterfly was thought to be extinct in the mid-1900s but has seen a comeback since its rediscovery near Miami in the...

Feeding frenzy: turning the science of zoo nutrition into a game for kids

In 2012, Busch Gardens opened the Animal Care Center to the public to share general information about the techniques and science involved in preventative and emergency care of the 12,000 animal residents of the zoo as well as local injured wildlife. Zoo educators teamed up with the veterinary and nutrition staff to develop demonstrations and interpretive elements that would share...

Handrearing a Hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibius): A Rare Opportunity for Collaboration

On January 24, 2017, Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden had a premature hippopotamus (Hippopotamus amphibious) calf (Fiona) born to a first-time mom (Bibi) on land weighing 29.6 lbs.  After one and a half hours, Fiona was pulled due to no attempts to stand or nurse coupled with lack of maternal care; Fiona was cold to touch and needed supportive care. ...

Comparison of proximate composition of domestic cat (Felis catus), clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), snow leopard (Uncia uncia), African lion (Panthera leo), and Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) maternal milk with exotic cat hand-rearing formulae

The aims of this study are (1) to compare proximate composition of milks of five felids, the domestic cat (Felis catus), clouded leopard (Neofelis nebulosa), snow leopard (Uncia uncia), African lion (Panthera leo), and Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) to establish if there exist species-specific differences in felid maternal milk composition, (2) to conduct proximate analyses on commercial hand-rearing formulae...

Routine dietary husbandry influences sensory evaluation in leopard tortoises (Stigomochelys pardalis)

Controlled sensory evaluations objectively assess physical and/or chemical characteristics that may influence food preference. Such evaluations are valuable to determine food properties that may encourage, or discourage food intake. Multiple factors influence animal behavior and subsequent choice. These must be strictly controlled so specific treatments can be considered in relative isolation. Six, subadult female leopard tortoises (Stigmochelys pardalis) participated in...

Removing milk from captive gorilla diets: the impact on regurgitation and reingestion (R/R) and other behaviors

To test whether milk consumption facilitates performance of regurgitation and reingestion (R/R) in captive gorillas, an experiment was conducted in which milk was removed from the gorilla diet at Zoo Atlanta. The study was conducted using a withdrawal design (BTB), in which a baseline period (B) of 10 days was followed by a treatment period (T) of 10 days, followed...

BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS IN THREE SPECIES OF AGALYCHNIS SP.

In the normal animal, the homeostasic level of blood glucose is mantained by the equilibrium between glucose supply and removal, as a result of a finely balance system of hormonal interactions.1 Reference glucose values can vary depending of the sex, weight, management and feeding systems, among others.3 Several studies have analyzed blood parameters for frogs, however, no previous studies have...

Small ruminants: digestive capacity differences among four species weighing less than 20 Kg

Small ruminants are generally classified as either browsers or frugivores. We compared intake and digestion in one browsing species, the pudu (Pudu pudu), body weight 9 kg, and three frugivorous species, the red brocket (Mazama americana), 20kg, the bay duiker (Cephalophus dorsalis), 12kg, and Maxwell’s duiker (C. maxwellii), 9 kg. Rations comprised: a commercial grain and alfalfa pellet, a small...

Nutrient and fermentation characteristics of Carolina willow (Salix caroliniana) silage

The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutrient and fermentation characteristics of Carolina willow (Salix caroliniana) silage. Twelve laboratory scale silos (10.2 cm diameter x 45.7 cm long) were packed by hand with chopped willow (1.41 kg as-is, range 1.28 – 1.65 ± 0.18 SD) and opened on 0, 21, 42, and 84-d post-ensiling (three replicates per period)....

Evaluation of eight species of native Texas browse as suitable forage substitutes for black rhinoceros (Dieros bicornis)

Duplication of natural foodstuffs for animals in captivity can be a difficult task. While it may not be possible to provide food sources normally available in an animal’ s natural habitat, a prospective goal might be to provide similar nutrients from locally available foods. Eight species of native Texas browse were studied for adequacy as a source of browse for...