Vitamin analysis reliability: A case study testing supplements and supplemented meat products for vitamin levels at three commercial laboratories in the United States

Regularly scheduled laboratory analysis of feed samples in zoological institutions is a necessary practice for maintenance of the highest levels of quality control. As such, factors such as cost, stability of product, and available storage environment may influence sampling protocols at each institution. The choice of laboratory used for analysis generally considers location and shipping concerns, availability of testing, methodology...

Nutrition and immunity: vitamins and minerals

Infectious diseases impinge on animal health and welfare. Appropriate nutrition may aid in minimizing the incidence of infectious diseases by optimizing immunity. Formulating diets that optimize immunity requires knowing the specific cellular mechanisms by which nutrients affect immunity, and how these mechanisms pertain to specific nutrients and pathogens. Understanding the nuances of nutrition and immunity is important because higher dietary...

A survey of African (Loxodonta Africana) and Asian (Elephas maximus) elephant diets and measured body dimensions compared to their estimated nutrient requirements

Nineteen zoos completed a survey between 1997 and 1998 detailing information on their elephants including: species (African; Loxodonta africana or Asian; Elephas maximus), sex, weight, height, girth, length, and age. Captive female African (3375 kg) and Asian (3453 kg) elephants appeared heavier than published data for their free-ranging counterparts (2800 and 2720 kg, respectively). Elephant weight and dimension information from...