Evaluation of zoological hoofstock supplements

Traditionally, U.S. zoos have fed two types of forage to exotic hoofstock species, primarily a legume (usually alfalfa, Medicago sativa) or grass hay(s). In addition to the forage, a grain supplement is added primarily as a carrier for vitamins and minerals, but also for supplemental energy. This has been the diet of choice for most ruminant and non-ruminant species with...

Determination of Vitamin E status and supplementation for the Nyala (Tragelaphus angasi)

High incidence of white muscle disease in captive nyala has lead to speculation that they have high vitamin E requirements. Maintenance of nyala is often achieved through high vitamin E supplementation. Injectable vitamin E has been administered monthly (750 IU/injection) at Denver Zoological Gardens for years as an effective method of preventing vitamin E deficiency related deaths, yet, was evaluated...