Trace element intake of Cercopithecinae

The Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and Mo intake was determined in 5 species of Cercopithecinae kept in captivity. The feed dry matter contained up to three times higher concentrations of trace elements compared to humans’ mixed and vegetarian diets. Although the mean body mass of the animals only amounted to 8% of the body mass of humans, they had a...

Browse species preference and palatability of Colobus guereza kikuyuensis at the Denver Zoological Gardens

In the wild, folivorous primates have access to leaves of many different species. At the Denver Zoological Gardens (DZG), in Denver, Colorado, Colobus guereza kikuyuensis primates consume most vegetation presented to them, thus maintenance of vegetation in an animal exhibit is challenging. It is observed that insufficient browse often results in behavior concerns such as pacing or lack of mental...

Chemical composition of Southeast Asian Colobine foods

Digestive disturbances have been considered a major health issue among captive colobines [Janssen, 1994; Calle et al., 1995]. Inadequate or inappropriate fiber sources may underlie some of these problems. Apart from maintaining normal gastrointestinal function [Van Soest, 1994 ], one critical issue in husbandry of these species is the necessity of providing a suitable diet for supporting pregastric [Stevens, 1988]...

Secondary compounds in foods selected by free-ranging primates on St. Catherines Island, GA

The foraging behavior of two groups of free-ranging primates, ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus), residing on St. Catherines Island Wildlife Center, Georgia was observed seasonally at quarterly intervals for one year. Each group (N=13, N=9, respectively) had unlimited access to native flora and fauna in addition to a daily provisional diet. Representative samples of non-provisioned items...

Do new world primates really have elevated needs for protein and Vitamin D?

Phylogenetic variation in nutrient requirements is of both theoretical and practical interest. Although all vertebrates are thought to require a similar set of nutrients, quantitative needs can vary in relation to digestive, physiologic and reproductive performance (Allen and Oftedal, 1996). For example, among primates it is likely that the nutrient requirements of colobine monkeys such as colobus (Colobus) and langurs...

Food, behavioral enrichment, and primates: some guidelines

Primates are prominent animals in captive collections. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) mandates that dealers, exhibitors, and research facilities develop, document and follow an appropriate plan for environment enhancement adequate to promote the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates (APHIS, USDA 1992). Zoos have long recognized the importance of enrichment for captive primates. Most zoos use food as a...

Digestive efficiency and passage rate in two propithecus species fed in a captive diet

The objective was to measure dry matter intake(DMI), digestibility, transit time (TT) and mean retention time (MRT) in captive P. v. coquereli (n=5, 3.7 ( 0.3kg) and P. tattersalli (n=2, 3.2 ( 0.03kg) while being fed a diet consisting of Mazuri Leafeater Primate Chow at 85% of DMI and sumac (Rhus copallina) at 15% of DMI. After a six-week diet...

The influence of dietary fiber on digestibility, passage rate, and body mass in captive baboons (Papio Anubis)

This was a preliminary study in which nutrient digestibility, digesta passage rate and body mass were determined for a captive group of baboons (Papio anubis). The group consisted of 6 adult, nonpregnant females. Three experimental diets, varying in acid detergent fiber (ADF) content, were fed. The fiber content of the experiment diets was: diet1=10.45% ADF, diet2=18.30% ADF and diet3=30.40% ADF.

Vitamin D and Primates: Recurring Problems on a Familiar Theme

Captive primates housed indoors with little access to ultraviolet light have historically been susceptible to metabolic bone disease. The trend in zoological parks toward building large, indoor exhibits has potentially exacerbated this problem. Most skylight materials are not transparent to the wavelengths of ultraviolet light (UV-B) necessary for endogenous production of vitamin D. It is possible that most primates, like...

Callitrichids: nutrition and dietary and husbandry

Meeting the nutritional needs of Callitrichids is essential to their survival and reproduction in captivity. Development of appropriate dietary guidelines involves information on 1) feeding ecology, 2) published nutrient requirements, often from studies of laboratory primates, 3) food preferences, and 4) foods available in zoos for diet formulation. This monograph is meant to provide a general overview of the feeding...

Leaf-eating primates: nutrition and dietary husbandry

Species differences in natural feeding habits and digestive system structure suggest that all captive primates should not be fed in the same manner.28 Primates whose diets consist primarily or exclusively of leaf material possess highly developed, and delicately balanced digestive systems, which enable them to utilize this abundant food source. The order of Primates consists of several species whose natural...

The Care and Management of Chimpanzees in Captive Environments

Chimpanzee diets in captivity have changed dramatically over the course of the last 90+ years. The lack of adequate foods to meet the nutritional needs of the species was a major contributing factor to chimpanzee mortality in the early years of zoo management. The development of what was thought to be a nutritionally complete primate diet, or monkey chow, has...

Bonobo Nutrition – Relation of Captive Diet to Wild Diet

This section is intended to provide bonobo caregivers with a basis for comparing the diet of wild bonobos to the diet offered to captive bonobos. This brief treatment of the subject primarily cites information gathered at the two major research sites, Lomako and Wamba. Because most of the published information on wild bonobo diets has come from these two sites,...