Evaluation of a dietary alternative to fish for California Sea Lions (Zalophus c. californianus)

Obtaining a suitable diversity of food fish for feeding marine mammals is a major challenge for zoological institutions and marine parks. In recent years, several species of fish, which were once considered staples in diets of captive marine mammals are no longer available due to over-harvesting [Davis, 1999]. Although government agencies have taken measures to address this decline in natural...

Testing a vitamin supplement paste in Jackass Penguins (Spheniscus demersus)

According to the literature, piscivorous species fed dead, frozen fish in zoos have been shown to require supplemental vitamin E and thiamin (Engelhardt and Geraci, 1978, Robbins, 1993). The Rotterdam Zoo supplemented jackass penguins (Spheniscus demersus) with extra vitamins since 1991 by injecting liquid vitamins into the defrosted pilchards (Sardina pilchardus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus) and herring (Clupea harangus) fed to...

Fish Composition: Effects of fish preparation and analytical methods

It is important to determine the nutrient content of fish fed to piscivorous species to ensure the animals are receiving an appropriate diet. The results of chemical analyses for nutrients can be affected by various factors including collection of a representative sample, sample preparation methodology, and laboratory and instrument variation. The objective of this project was to determine the effects...

Feeding captive piscivorous animals: nutritional aspects of fish as food.

Piscivory is a term which specifically refers to the consumption of fish, but for the purposes of this document also encompasses a variety of organisms including marine invertebrates. Fish and marine invertebrates are prevalent constituents in the diets of a diversity of captive animals. Appropriate selection, purchase, storage, and thawing of these products is critical to the successful husbandry and...