Examination of palatability of extruded primate diet using three flavors

Commercial diets are often essential parts of captive primate nutrition. However, consumption of dry extruded products can be difficult to encourage. Food and flavor preferences have been observed in captive primates and may be affected by palatability. This study examines the palatability of a commercial extruded primate diet when compared to 3 diets containing new flavors. Mazuri® Primate Browse Biscuit...

Nutritional and physical characteristics of commercial hand-feeding formulas for parrots

Hand-rearing is a common practice for the propagation of psittacines, however, research on their nutrition is limited and the neonatal requirements are not well understood. We analyzed the nutrient composition and physical characteristics of 15 commercially available parrot handfeeding formulas. Formulas were compared with the average nutritional content of the crops of free living Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao) chicks. When the formulas were prepared...

Dietary iron absoption ant the role of tannins in Eastern (Diceros bicornis michaeli) and Southern black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis minor)

Three diet treatments were fed for at least 6 months at 6 institutions to a total of 11 black rhinoceros to assess the effect of tannins on iron status. Diet treatments were: 1.) a pellet/mixed hay diet, which reflected the diet historically fed; 2.) a pellet/mixed hay diet with quebracho added to the pellets as a source of iron binding...

Hand-rearing and growth of two ibex (Capra ibex nubiana) kids from 24 hours to weaning at 105 days of age

Two male ibex kids were hand-reared from approximately 24 h after birth. Goat production and exotic captive small ruminant management systems were researched and compared to National Research Council (NRC) energy requirements in order to design a strategy for optimal feeding and growth. Weights were collected on each ibex daily or every other day throughout rearing to evaluate gain and...

Vitamin analysis reliability: A case study testing supplements and supplemented meat products for vitamin levels at three commercial laboratories in the United States

Regularly scheduled laboratory analysis of feed samples in zoological institutions is a necessary practice for maintenance of the highest levels of quality control. As such, factors such as cost, stability of product, and available storage environment may influence sampling protocols at each institution. The choice of laboratory used for analysis generally considers location and shipping concerns, availability of testing, methodology...

Selected eucalyptus preference by the koalas (Phascolarctos cinsereus) at the San Diego Zoo

The San Diego Zoo has the largest group of Queensland koalas in captivity outside Australia. Many of these koalas are on loan in different facilities through North America. Due to the large number of koalas, San Diego Zoo Global maintains an over 4 ha plantation of eucalyptus. A preliminary study conducted at the San Diego Zoo found a variability in...

Evaluation of hand-rearing formula for greater Indian rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis)

Since opening in May 1972, the San Diego Zoo Safari Park (historically known as the San Diego Wild Animal Park) has hand-raised a number of rhinoceros calves, including southern white (Ceratotherium simum simum), black (Diceros bicornis michaeli) and greater Indian (Rhinoceros unicornis). In order to improve success rates and generate appropriate protocols with any handreared neonate species, it is important...

Evaluating the stability of nutrients of cut eucalyptus sideroxylon browse for koalas

The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of leaf nutrient contents in Eucalyptus sideroxylon browse branches over the course of one week. Twelve branches were cut and transported to the koala barn within 1 h. These branches were kept in a walk-in cooler and three branches were sampled 1.5, 45, 93, and 141 h post-harvest. The branches...

Paca feeding in captivity

The paca (Cuniculus paca) is the biggest rodent in Costa Rica. During 2009 and 2010, a national survey was carried out to determine the actual nutritional management of this species. Diet ingredients and proportions were surveyed by region and the composition categorized and analyzed for 64 farms and 558 animals. Diets offered varied in ingredients including produce (fruits, tubercules, legumes),...

The development and evaluation of a gut-loading diet for feeder crickets formulated to provide a balanced nutrient package for insectivorous amphibians and reptiles

Obligate insectivores in their natural habitats consume a wide variety of insect species. In captivity, the diversity of prey items is limited to very few species which has led to nutritional deficiencies. Zoological institutions, therefore, have a responsibility to administer feeding programs which include supplementation techniques that compensate for known shortcomings in the nutrient composition of their feeder insects. Gut-loading...

Palatability assessment of a gelatin based diet through the use of first bite and total volume measurements in Atlantic bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops Truncatus)

It is well established that a variety of organic and inorganic compounds, including soluble sugars, polysaccharides, amino acids and potential toxins are all subject to nutritional chemoreception, and as consequence may induce behavior in biologic organisms (Lindemann, 2001). These behaviors may be quite different even among closely related species and can be specific to individual nutritional requirements. The exact stimulus...

Hand raising manatee (Trichechus manatus)

Manatee (Trichechus manatus) calves are abandoned each year in the Atlantic Ocean or Gulf of Mexico around Florida and some of those animals are brought to SeaWorld Parks and Entertainment in Orlando (SWF) for rehabilitation and future release back into the wild. While in most cases we are unsure why the calf was separated from the mom, it is likely...

The formulation of an artificial diet for captive kiwi (Apteryx mantelli)

Population numbers of North Island brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli) are estimated to have almost halved in the last decade. Despite some success of captive breeding, captive bred kiwi suffer higher embryonic and adult mortality rates, smaller eggs and lower hatching rates than wild kiwi. A major contributor to these problems is likely to be diet. The current diet fed to...

Application of allometric field metabolic rate equations to predict energy and food requirements of leopard tortoises (Geochelone pardalis)

In the absence of species specific energy requirements, allometric formulas are one method to predict practical diet quantities. The objective of this study was to quantify individual voluntary dry matter (DMI), metabolizable energy (MEI) intake and body weight (BW) in 18 juvenile leopard tortoises (Geochelone pardalis). Over two 15-day periods (A, B), each animal was offered a nutritionally complete, extruded...

Diets offered to maned wolves (Chrysocyon brachyurus) in North American zoos: a review and analysis

The maned wolf, a canid native to South America, has had a history of cystinuria and poor fecal consistency in North American institutions. Factors contributing to this may be related to feeding the species a primarily carnivorous diet, despite its omnivorous dietary habits under free-ranging conditions. To address cystinuria and fecal consistency, a commercially manufactured diet was fed to all...

Case study: Seasonal diets for brown bears (Ursus arctos) at Brookfield Zoo: successful implementation led to reduced weight and improved behavior

From 1995 – 2008 the brown bears (Ursus arctos) at Brookfield Zoo were fed a standard diet consisting of carnivore meat products, fish (seasonally), dog food, apples, carrots, lettuce, bread, and a small assortment of fruit as treats. The diet increased or decreased in amount based on the bears’ motivation for food (i.e., by season), but the diet composition was...

Kori bustard nutrition and dietary husbandry

Kori bustards (Ardeotis kori) are reported to be omnivorous, consuming mostly insect and plant material in their grassland habitat. A complete nutrient analysis of these food items and their contribution to the overall diet has not been determined. The gastrointestinal tract of the kori is typical of an insectivorous bird, but to date they have been fed in captivity as...

Evaluation of zoological hoofstock supplements

Traditionally, U.S. zoos have fed two types of forage to exotic hoofstock species, primarily a legume (usually alfalfa, Medicago sativa) or grass hay(s). In addition to the forage, a grain supplement is added primarily as a carrier for vitamins and minerals, but also for supplemental energy. This has been the diet of choice for most ruminant and non-ruminant species with...

Safety of feeding anadromous fish to polar bears

Fish are a standard part of polar bear diets in zoos and aquaria. Though most fish are frozen and thawed for feeding, some institutions have access to fresh fish such as salmon and trout. Recently, animal managers have encouraged the feeding of live fish for enrichment purposes. In 1982 two polar bears living in a Pacific Northwest zoo were thought...

DIET DIGESTIBILITY IN COLOBINE MONKEYS: IMPLICATIONS FOR DIETS AND DIETARY RECOMMENDATIONS

This study quantified the composition and diet digestibility of 19 diets consumed by 11 groups of colobine monkeys (four species: Colobus guereza, Trachypithecus obscurus, Colobus angolensis, and Rhinopithecus bieti) in the US and in China. Each digestibility trial had a 10- day adaptation period and a three-day collection period. The diets consumed averaged 17.1 ± 0.9% crude protein, 24.4 ±...

Summary of polar bear nutrition guidelines

Polar bears, the most carnivorous of the Ursidae family, prey primarily on ringed seals. When brought into captivity, maintaining their nutritional and psychological health can be challenging. Due to the lack of in-depth species-specific research, dietary recommendations for polar bears are formulated considering known requirements of related domestic animals, the diets, and nutrients consumed by healthy captive bears. A balanced...

Animal nutrition activities at the National Academies-National Research Council

One of the primary missions of the Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources of the National Academies is the publication of a series of reports that deal with animal nutrition. The most well known of these reports are those on Nutrient Requirements of Animals, but periodically additional topics that relate to animal nutrition are addressed. There are currently three projects...

Application of non-ruminant herbivore nutrition

The nutrition of the horse has perhaps been studied more than the nutrition of any other non-ruminant herbivore. Information about the nutrition of the horse may be of value when formulating diets of some wild non-ruminant herbivores. Of course, quantitative nutrient requirements developed for the horse must be used with caution for other animals, if at all. Knowledge of energy,...

Nutrient composition and dietary intake of captive horned guans (Oreophasis derbianus)

Captive breeding successes of Oreophasis debianus, the horned guan, have been rare. The nutritional requirements of the species are unknown, and previous studies of its digestive physiology or captive nutritional husbandry have not been published. Three Mexican zoos with successful homed guan breeding programs were selected to evaluate dietary husbandry, including determination of nutrient composition of diets offered and consumed,...

Hyena diet survey and nutrient guidelines

Diet and nutrition of captive hyenas was evaluated through a survey to document feeding practices. Survey results were compared to both the domestic cat and dog dietary recommendations. The 15 U.S. institutions surveyed fed 60 (33.27) spotted hyenas (Crocuta crocuta) 22 different weekly diets, an average of 11.75 + 9.16 kg of food weekly (amounts on an as-fed basis). Weekly...

Observations of growth of South African cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus) fed different carnivore diets

Significant changes have occurred in the availability of raw ingredients used in fresh meat-based carnivore diets, and as a result, the finished diets. Two litters (n = 9) of maternally reared South African cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus jubatus) included in this retrospective study of cub growth were offered comparable carnivore diets that differed primarily in the species (horse [Diet A, Litter...

Rhinoceros Husbandry Manual

It is believed that many of the health problems identified in captive rhinos may be linked to nutritional factors. Rhinos consume a large number of plants with a diverse array of physical characteristics and nutrients. They represent a range of feeding strategies and consequently diet, from browsers (or selective feeders) to unselective grazers. Captive diets may include possible imbalances in...