Foraging behavior and analysis of whole prey eaten by the American oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus)

As part of a continuing study using the American oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus), populations as biomonitors of coastal habitat quality, foraging behavior was quantified, and primary food items obtained for nutritional analysis during June and July, 2002. Two southeastern US barrier island sites were sampled: St. Catherines Island (SCI), GA and Cape Romain National Wildlife Refuge, SC. Bivalves including blood ark...

Obesity, weight management and dietary analysis in Micronesian kingfishers (Halcyon cinnamomina cinnamomina)

Mortality in captive Micronesian kingfishers (Halcyon cinnamomina cinnamomina) is notably high in age classes that should be peak breeding years. Females, in particular, suffer high rates of mortality earlier than would be expected from examining patterns in related species. Many birds are overweight and sustained weight loss has been difficult to achieve. Body mass for the 2.2 birds in this...

Developing an energy intake model for parent-rearing Saddle-bill storks (Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis)

A model was developed based on food disappearance to determine the quantity of food and estimate the metabolizable energy (ME) requirements for the growth of parent reared Saddle-bill storks (Ephippiorhynchus senegalensis). Based on the initial observations in 2001, a feeding protocol was developed and utilized for parent-reared storks in 2002. Food disappearing from the food dish offered to two (1.1)...

Intake study of the lesser green broadbill (Calyptomena viridis) at Disney’s Animal Kingdom

A nine-day intake study was carried out at Disney’s Animal Kingdom’s (DAK) Avian Research Center on an adult pair (1.1) of the frugivorous lesser green broadbills (LGB). The pellet/produce/invertebrate diet was fed twice daily. Two collections were carried out; one with food items presented separated, and a second with all ingredients combined as prepared by keepers. The birds displayed a...

Application of a dry, manufactured diet for multiple lory species

Lories, lorikeets, and other psittacines that include plant pollen and nectars as a portion of their natural diets have historically been offered liquid nectar solution (LNS) diets as some portion of a captive feeding program. Although readily accepted by these species, LNS diets are nutritionally dissimilar to foods consumed by free-ranging individuals, primarily due to high moisture content and subsequent...

Analysis of nectar replacement products and a case of iron toxicosis in hummingbirds

Twenty-five of 26 hummingbirds (Trochilidae) from 7 species previously maintained in an aviary on a commercial nectar substitute for 13 years, died over 3-month period. Gross necropsy was inconclusive; however, staining of liver and intestinal tissue showed high levels of Fe deposition. Analysis of separate bags (n=9) of the nectar product, with identical lot numbers, showed variation in Fe content...

Nutrient composition of American flamingo crop milk

Crop milk samples (30 mL) were collected from juvenile (6-7 wks old) American flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber ruber, n = 14) in the Ria Lagartos Biosphere Reserve (El Cuyo, Mexico) on the northern coast of the Yucatan Peninsula. The samples were analyzed for dry matter, crude protein, fat, minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, sodium, potassium, iron, copper, molybdenum, zinc), vitamin A,...

Comparative protein requirements of three species of parrots with distinct dietary specializations

Highly specialized nectarivorous and frugivorous birds have overcome the constraints of low dietary protein levels. Proposed physiological mechanisms that enable such specialists to subsist on low-protein diets include low protein requirements, low endogenous protein losses, high feed intake, and high protein digestibilities. These traits were compared among nectarivorous red lories (Eos bornea), frugivorous Pesquet’s parrots (Psittrichas fulgidus), and granivorous budgerigars...

Hornbill diets at San Diego Zoo Global: a review

Hornbills (Bucerotidae) are a family of birds that include 14 genera and 54 species spanning sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia.7 They are easily identified by their long decurved bill and casque.7 The smallest hornbills range in body weight from 83-135 g (Black dwarf-hornbill, Tockus hartlaubi; Red-billed dwarf hornbill, Tockus camurus) while the largest can reach body weights of 2230-4580 g...

Case report: enhancing the vitamin E status and coloration of a Southern lanner falcon (Falco biarmicus biarmicus)

The death of a Lanner falcon (Falco biarmicus biarmicus) in January 2010 with low liver vitamin E (0.90 mg/kg wet wt.) suggested that the bird was in poor health with a marginal diet. The liver vitamin E concentration of poultry receiving adequate dietary vitamin E is 15-40 ?g/g wet weight.8 Animal care staff wanted to ensure the diet of the...

Testing a vitamin supplement paste in Jackass Penguins (Spheniscus demersus)

According to the literature, piscivorous species fed dead, frozen fish in zoos have been shown to require supplemental vitamin E and thiamin (Engelhardt and Geraci, 1978, Robbins, 1993). The Rotterdam Zoo supplemented jackass penguins (Spheniscus demersus) with extra vitamins since 1991 by injecting liquid vitamins into the defrosted pilchards (Sardina pilchardus), mackerel (Scomber scombrus) and herring (Clupea harangus) fed to...

Nutritional evaluation of a hand-rearing protocol for the San Clemente Island Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus mearnsi)

The San Clemente Island (SCI) Loggerhead Shrike, a subspecies found only on SCI, 80 km off the coast of San Diego, was federally listed as endangered in 1977. The wild population has numbered 12-18 birds for the last 10 years making this one of the most endangered birds in North America. As part of an ongoing, federally funded captive recovery...

Energy metabolizability and nutrient digestibility in the magpie (Pica pica)

A number of studies have been conducted to determine energy requirements in avian species. However, this is a complex area and one which is driven by a number of factors. For example, environment is one of the major factors which governs energy requirements, and the metabolizable energy requirements of avians housed in controlled conditions probably do not reflect the normal...

Development of hand-rearing techniques for Roseate Spoonbills, Ajaia ajaja, at the Fort Worth Zoo

The Fort Worth Zoo has held a breeding flock of roseate spoonbills (Ajaia ajaja), since the 1960’s and has had more success breeding and parent-rearing roseate spoonbills (Ajaia ajaja), than any other institution worldwide. To infuse new genetic material into the North American population, Fort Worth began collecting hatchlings and eggs from free-ranging birds for hand- rearing. Fledglings were first...

Evaluating a Submersible Diet for Ducks and Other Species

The use of an alginate-calcium complex to formulate a durable submersible diet was evaluated in a feeding trial with growing ducklings. Growth, feed intake (FI), gain:feed ratio (GF), dry matter digestibility, metabolizable energy (ME), nitrogen-corrected ME and excreta moisture did not differ between birds fed a commercial 22% crude protein duck starter diet and those fed the same diet incorporating...

Effects of Diet on Nutritional Content of Prey Species fed to Captive Raptors

We measured proximate composition (moisture, lipid, protein, ash), vitamin A and vitamin E content, and six minerals (Cu, Fe, Zn, Mg, Mn, Ca) in quail, rats, mice and guinea pigs raised on at least two different diets per species. The objectives of this work were 1) to assess the variability of nutrient composition in some commonly used, commercially available diets,...

Monitoring Food Intake of a Pair of Major Mitchell’s Cockatoos, (Cacatua leadbeateri)

The food consumption of a pair of Major Mitchell’s Cockatoos, Cacatua leadbeateri, (Leadbeater’s or Pink Cockatoos) was monitored at the Metro Toronto Zoo (MTZ). The diet included a commercial pellet, MTZ “psittacine mix”, mixed whole fruits and dried fruits and a seed mixture, the latter historically offered for behavioural enrichment. The diet had been offered to MTZ psittacines for several...

Wrobel ML, Twinney JK, Valdes EV. 1995. Monitoring food intake of a pair of Major Mitchell’s Cockatoos, (Cacatua leadbeateri) in Proceedings of the First AZA Nutrition Advisory Group Conference, Scarborough, OT Canada.

Dietary Protein Effect on Parakeet Reproduction, Growth, and Plasma Uric Acid

The effect of dietary protein level on reproductive performance, chick growth, and plasma uric acid in parakeets was studied. The treatments consisted of three isocaloric diets (3200 kcal of metabolizable energy per kilogram) containing 13.5%, 18.2%, and 25% protein (analyzed) and a vitamin and mineral supplemented commercially available seed diet (13.4% protein, analyzed). One hundred five pairs were assigned to...

Penguins: nutrition and dietary husbandry

Provision of nutritional, behavioral, and environmental requirements is basic to the successful maintenance and reproduction of captive penguins. The following guidelines for nutrient intake and dietary husbandry were developed from studies of natural feeding ecology, published nutrient requirements of related species, information on potential penguin foods and their nutrient composition, and evidence of food preferences. Penguin foods are perishable and...

Micronesian kingfishers: nutrition and dietary husbandry

Due to the rapid decline of the wild Micronesian kingfisher (Halcyon cinnamomina cinnamomina) population on Guam, few data on dietary habits and associated nutrient intakes were gathered prior to establishment of a captive population. Although further information would be very helpful in developing appropriate diets for captive birds, the species is now extinct in the wild. Therefore, the dietary guidelines...

Feeding captive piscivorous animals: nutritional aspects of fish as food.

Piscivory is a term which specifically refers to the consumption of fish, but for the purposes of this document also encompasses a variety of organisms including marine invertebrates. Fish and marine invertebrates are prevalent constituents in the diets of a diversity of captive animals. Appropriate selection, purchase, storage, and thawing of these products is critical to the successful husbandry and...

Penguin diet and nutrition

Meeting the nutritional needs of penguins is essential if they are to survive and reproduce in captivity. Developing appropriate dietary guidelines involves using information 1) from feeding ecology data, 2) from published nutrient requirement data 3) on food availability to zoos and 4) on food preference. It is also essential to store and process food items correctly and provision the...

Nutritional requirements of adult palm cockatoos

The nutrition section is based on a questionnaire that was distributed in 1992 to facilities that have bred or displayed palm cockatoos, on general knowledge of the nutritional requirements of birds (in particular successful diets and practices with psittacines), and on what has been observed with palm cockatoos at ABRC over the years.

Diets for Micronesian Kingfisher Halcyon c. cinnamomina

Due to the rapid decline of the Micronesian kingfisher on Guam, little information on their nutritional needs was gathered prior to the establishment of a captive population. Although it is essential to develop appropriate dietary guidelines which meet the nutritional needs of the Micronesian kingfisher, additional information on their natural feeding behavior can no longer be obtained now that the...

Age Changes in Digestibility of Nutrients in Ostriches

Age Changes in Digestibility of Nutrients in Ostriches Roselina Angel Purina Mills Inc., St. Louis, Missouri A digestibility study was conducted with 3-, 6-, 10-, and 17- week old and 30 month old ostriches. Two methods were used to determine digestibility: the total excreta collection method and a marker method, using chromic oxide. No significant difference between methods used to...

Husbandry Guidelines For the Bali Mynah (Leucopsar rothschildi) Species Survival Plan

Like other members of the family Sturnidae, Bali mynahs are omnivorous. Preferred food items in the wild include seasonally available fruits of native trees and shrubs, a variety of insects and even small reptiles. Historically, they have been maintained in captivity on a multitude of diets, most being a mix of chopped or diced fruit and high-protein items such as...