Mazzaro L, Dunn JL, Tuttle A, Goodman J, Wyatt J, Kadyszewski E. 2003. Plasma electrolyte concentration for African penguins (Spheniscus demersus) and their relationship to habitat type and salt supplementation. In Ward A, Brooks M, Maslanka M, Eds. Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Zoo and Wildlife Nutrition, AZA Nutrition Advisory Group, Minneapolis, MN.
African penguins are common display animals in North American zoos and aquariums. At present 43 American Zoo and Aquarium (AZA) accredited institutions, maintaining over 700 African penguins, participate in a species survival plan (SSP) for this species. There are currently some institutions that maintain their birds in freshwater without salt supplementation. No associated health issues have been reported by these institutions. By assaying and comparing plasma electrolyte concentrations, this ten month, controlled study objectively addresses the question of whether plasma electrolytes of salt supplemented African penguins maintained in freshwater differ from those of similarly maintained nonsupplemented conspecifics.MazzaropengabsNAG03.Final.pdf     9 KB