Preference of supplemental nectar by three native butterfly species

Two diets, a sugar-water solution (Diet A) and nutritionally complete nectar solution (Diet B), provided in a mixed species enclosure as a source of nutrients for multiple nectivorous species were evaluated for preference among three North American species of butterflies. Preference was defined as number of visits to one of two nectar feeders. The feeder containing Diet B was preferentially...

Application of a dry, manufactured diet for multiple lory species

Lories, lorikeets, and other psittacines that include plant pollen and nectars as a portion of their natural diets have historically been offered liquid nectar solution (LNS) diets as some portion of a captive feeding program. Although readily accepted by these species, LNS diets are nutritionally dissimilar to foods consumed by free-ranging individuals, primarily due to high moisture content and subsequent...

Analysis of nectar replacement products and a case of iron toxicosis in hummingbirds

Twenty-five of 26 hummingbirds (Trochilidae) from 7 species previously maintained in an aviary on a commercial nectar substitute for 13 years, died over 3-month period. Gross necropsy was inconclusive; however, staining of liver and intestinal tissue showed high levels of Fe deposition. Analysis of separate bags (n=9) of the nectar product, with identical lot numbers, showed variation in Fe content...