Vitamin D and ultraviolet radiation: meeting lighting needs for captive animals

Most animals meet their vitamin D needs through diet or exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation. However, rickets and osteomalacia, classic consequences of calcium and vitamin D deficiency, are problems in a number of captive species, including certain basking reptiles and nursing primates, when little or no access is provided to natural sunlight.1,2,4 Vitamin D deficiency may occur even when diets...