Use of a novel iron chelator (HBED) in black rhinoceros

Black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis) are critically endangered and are compromised by iron overload under human care (Paglia and Tsu, 2012; Molenaar et al., 2008). With the goal of safely reducing iron absorption in the gastrointestinal tract of affected and susceptible individuals, we investigated oral administration of the iron chelator, N,N-bis(2-hydroxybenzyl)ethylenediamine-N,N–diacetic acid (HBED) to 2.1 black rhinoceros. We expected HBED administration...

A retrospective investigation of the prevalence and significance of hemosiderosis in captive pinnipeds

Iron is a trace element required for the synthesis of haemoglobin and a number of energetic reactions. In most species, iron uptake is primarily regulated by the absorption of iron and protein-addition conversion to ferritin in the mucosal layers of the intestines and the sloughing of mucosal layers when iron levels are replete. However, if this system becomes imbalanced as...

Iron deficiency anemia in captive Malayan tapir calves (Tapirus indicus)

Subclinical iron deficiency anemia was diagnosed in a captive neonatal female Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus) through blood samples obtained as part of an in-house training program for venipuncture. Routine blood testing performed at day 2 of age was within in-house and ISIS normal values for this species. Microcytic hypochromic anemia (HCT = 16 %; MCV = 38.4 fL; MCH =...

Dietary treatment of iron storage disease in captive birds of paradise (Paradisaea raggiana)

Elevated serum iron parameters were lowered through dietary manipulation in captive Bird of Paradise (Paradisaea raggiana) using a modification of previously published low-iron diets. Study birds were part of a captive breeding program consisting of two males and one female, captive born, 3.5 to 9 years of age. Serum iron, total iron binding capacity (TIBC), percent transferrin saturation, body weight,...

Determination of tannin levels in various plants and their possible effect on iron chelation in lemurs

Lemurs are one of several species that can suffer from excess iron accumulation in tissues, termed hemosiderosis. The more severe form, hemochromatosis, develops when hemosiderosis is accompanied by functional or morphologic evidence of iron toxicity and may result in clinical disease and death. Organs most often affected include the liver, heart, spleen, and gastrointestinal tract. The pathology of this problem/disease...

The effect of length of cold storage on secondary plant compounds in browse for captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis)

The endangered black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) suffers from a high rate of mortality in captivity due to conditions such as hemosiderosis and hemolytic anemia. Supplementation of the diet with native browse species rich in tannins and other iron-binding polyphenolics has been proposed as a dietary strategy for reducing iron absorption and accumulation in this population. This study examined the effect...

The effect of sample handling and preparation on the iron binding polyphenolic content of browse

The objective of this study was to determine feasible handling methods for accurate analysis of iron binding polyphenolics. Seven methods were tested with different combinations of both onsite handling and laboratory preparation. In these methods, on-site collection included freezing the samples with liquid nitrogen or dry ice or collecting the samples fresh and returning them to the lab. Once in...

Analysis of nectar replacement products and a case of iron toxicosis in hummingbirds

Twenty-five of 26 hummingbirds (Trochilidae) from 7 species previously maintained in an aviary on a commercial nectar substitute for 13 years, died over 3-month period. Gross necropsy was inconclusive; however, staining of liver and intestinal tissue showed high levels of Fe deposition. Analysis of separate bags (n=9) of the nectar product, with identical lot numbers, showed variation in Fe content...