Macronutrient selection in mammalian insectivores at Busch Gardens Tampa Bay

This study determined macronutrient target of several mammalian insectivore species including 3-banded armadillo, aardvark, tamandua (lesser anteater), and greater anteater. These insectivores are often maintained on a commercial insectivore diet, which may or may not be appropriate for every species in this diverse and polyphyletic group. Animals were fed three experimental diets that varied in their proportions of calories from...

Comparative serum analysis of free-ranging and managed green moray eels (Gymnothorax funebris) and relationship to diet fed to eels under human care

Green moray eels (Gymnothorax funebris) under human care are reported to have elevated plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations with associated development of lipid keratopathy (Clode et al. 2012). Nevertheless, serum trace mineral and vitamin analyses have not been assessed, and the complete nutrient content (cholesterol, vitamins, and minerals) of managed eel diets has also not been reported (Clode et al....

Nutritional analysis of mixed produce for exotic species using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS)

Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) has long been established as a fast, easy, and cost effective technology for measuring basic organic components utilized in diet formulations. In zoological facilities, accurate timely quality control of diet ingredients, including highly variable items and those with a short shelf life, such as produce, can be difficult. We utilized traditional wet chemistry data from...

Evaluating the nutrition of a flock of non-breeding greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus) at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park

A flock of 150 greater flamingos (Phoenicopterus ruber roseus) at the San Diego Zoo Safari Park were moved to a new enclosure in 2010 to provide them a larger exhibit and to promote the breeding of lesser flamingos (Phoeniconaias minor) that shared the previous exhibit. Since the greater flamingos moved, they have not laid eggs through June 2015. A nutrition...

Common aquatic ingredient nutrient analyses: balancing practical feeding with long term aquatic health

Optimizing dietary formulations for aquatic species is one of the most challenging aspects of nutrition for exotics. Whether designing diets for elasmobranches, fish in a multi-species aquarium, or marine mammals, understanding the nutrients provided in the food is essential. Ideally, designing aquatic diets utilizes both known body weights of the target species, and analyzed nutrient contents of diet items. Repercussions...

Calibration development for rapid assessment of fish species for dolphins in human care using near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS)

Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) is a fast, accurate, and cost effective method for analyzing organic compounds. Dolphins as a species are highly sensitive to changes in the energy and nutrient contents of their diets. We analyzed monthly samples (n=148) of capelin, herring, and squid for dry matter, crude protein and crude fat. The dried and ground samples were returned...

Nutrient composition of the milk of the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla)

Little information exists about milk composition in obligate insectivores or in members of the mammalian superorder Xenarthra. A total of 37 milk samples collected from 3 lactating giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) were assayed for proximate nutrient content at the Nutrition Laboratory of the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute using standard methods developed at the Nutrition Laboratory. Water comprised 88.7 ± 2.1%...

Nutrient Composition of Locally Obtained Native Fishes (St. Catherines Island, GA, USA) Compared with Fish Commonly Purchased for North American Zoo Feeding Programs

Nine species of local fishes, obtained as part of a larger population study, were chemically analyzed to determine nutrient composition prior to use in feeding programs at the Wildlife Survival Center, St. Catherines Island, Georgia, USA. The nutrient composition of locally obtainable fishes was compared to that of fishes commonly used in North American zoo feeding programs. The 9 local...

Nutrient Composition of Whole Vertebrate Prey (Excluding Fish) Fed in Zoos

Although nutritionally balanced formulations, largely based upon nutrient requirements of domestic cats, are commercially available for many zoo carnivores, some choose to use whole prey as a part or all of certain captive feeding programs. Whole prey are similar in physical form to the natural diet of some carnivores, and are commonly presumed to meet nutrient requirements as long as...

Bamboo as a year-round forage source

Bamboo is a rapidly renewable, nutritionally stable, and in most cases, evergreen forage. Although only rivercane (Arundinaria gigantica) is native to North America, bamboo enthusiasts have imported hundreds of varieties adapted to a wide range of climates and growing zones. We have conducted macronutrient analysis on eleven temperate species collected across all seasons and have analyzed for dry matter, ash,...

NUTRIENT COMPOSITION OF FEEDSTUFFS FED TO ANIMALS IN THE NATIONAL ZOOLOGICAL GARDENS OF SOUTH AFRICA

Processes of preparing balanced diets, limitations in the supply of suitable feedstuffs to captive animals and their diversity in the zoological community are special challenges to diet management. The knowledge of the nutrients needed by the animal and what feeds will supply those nutrients, is one of the most important steps in managing diet of animals in captivity. In the...

Chemical composition of foods eaten by African colobines compared with Southeast Asian colobines

Nutritional analyses of foods eaten by wild colobine populations can be useful for understanding colobine nutritional needs, crucial for successful maintenance of captive populations. A previous report by Nijboer et al. summarized the mineral and proximate data for browse composition of three species of Southeast Asian colobines. The authors noted that the diets of these wild colobines contained substantially more...

Carp cakes: another fish alternative

Silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) and bighead carp (H. nobilis) are invasive species that pose a threat of displacing and lowering the abundance of native fishes, mussels and invertebrates. The Mississippi Interstate Cooperative Resource Association (MICRA) considers bighead and silver carp the most important aquatic nuisance species in the basin. On the Missouri, Mississippi and Illinois rivers, bighead and silver carp...

Nutrient composition of savannahs at Disney’s Animal Kingdom Lodge

Disney’s Animal Kingdom Lodge at Lake Buena Vista Florida is home to a wide variety of animal species. Rooms at the Lodge look out over three savannah areas housing a collection of African animals. In spring 2006, a comprehensive investigation into the nutrient composition of the savannahs at the Lodge was initiated. Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon), bahia grass (Paspalum notatum)...

Feed intake and analysis of browse fed to Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) at the Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden

Even though Sumatran rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis) have been exhibited at 4 zoos in the U.S. for about 20 years, the diet is not well defined. Currently, the animals at Cincinnati Zoo & Botanical Garden (CZBG) appear in good health and condition with successful reproduction consuming a diet of the following ingredient proportions: 9-18% produce, 76-83% ficus spp., 3-5% ZNN (Zoo...

Nutrient composition of whole crayfish eaten by hellbender salamanders (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis spp.)

Four species of native Missouri crayfish identified as foods of the Ozark hellbender salamander (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi), were analyzed for nutrient content including water, proximate composition (crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, and ash), as well as vitamin A, vitamin E, total carotenoids, and select mineral concentrations. Additionally, fatty acids in crayfish were examined and compared with krill as a...

Investigations into the nutritional composition of moon jellyfish, Aurelia aurita

Proximate nutrients, fat-soluble vitamins A and E, and mineral composition of the moon jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, were measured in wild specimens from Jamaica Bay, NY, and in captive cultured specimens from the New York Aquarium (reported as mean ± SE). Crude protein content of free-ranging jellyfish was approximately twice that seen in captive animals (9.20% ± 0.40% dry matter (DM)...

Nutrient composition and dietary intake of captive horned guans (Oreophasis derbianus)

Captive breeding successes of Oreophasis debianus, the horned guan, have been rare. The nutritional requirements of the species are unknown, and previous studies of its digestive physiology or captive nutritional husbandry have not been published. Three Mexican zoos with successful homed guan breeding programs were selected to evaluate dietary husbandry, including determination of nutrient composition of diets offered and consumed,...

Milk composition and lactation strategies across mammalian taxa: implications for hand-rearing neonates

The two major features of mammalian reproduction are viviparity and lactation (milk production); of these, only lactation is both unique to mammals and occurs in all living species of mammals. Milk is the complex lacteal secretion of the mammary gland responsible for the provision of nutrients and energy to the growing neonate. Once adopted during the course of mammalian evolution,...

Macronutrient composition of plants consumed by wild black and white ruffed lemurs (Varecia variegate) in Betampona Natural Reserve, Madagascar

Macronutrient composition was determined on a dry matter (DM) basis for plants (n=121) consumed by wild black and white ruffed lemurs. Samples were collected based on direct observation of foraging by the study group for a period of one year. Plant parts included fruits (n=80), young leaves (n=37), and flowers (n=4).

Milk composition of the reticulated giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata)

Reticulated giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata) are the most common subspecies of giraffe maintained in zoological institutions. The gestation length for a reticulated giraffe is about 455 days (15 months). Lactation in wild giraffes has been estimated to last 12-13 months. The milk samples used in this study were part of the Smithsonian National Zoological Park’s Milk Repository and had been...

Effects of diet on nutritional content of whole vertebrate prey.

Proximate composition (moisture, lipid, protein, ash), vitamin A and vitamin E content, and six minerals (Cu, Fe, Zn, Mg, Mn, Ca) were measured in quail, rats, mice, and guinea pigs raised on at least two different diets per species. Feed composition varied substantially but erratically in lipid, vitamin A, vitamin E, and mineral content. All unsupplemented feeds had less vitamin...

Nutrition of the tamandua: I. Nutrient composition of termites (Nasutitermes spp.) and stomach content from wild tamanduas (Tamandua tetradactyla)

Arboreal termites (Nasutitermes spp.) and stomach contents from tamanduas (Tamandua tetradactyla) were collected in central Venezuela during the mid part of the dry season (March) of 1993 and 1994.Nutritional analyses were performed on each caste (workers (n = 3), soldiers (n = 5), and alates (n =1]), on mixed caste samples (n = 1), and on stomach contents from live...

Nutritional composition of the diet of Alouatta palliate Mexicana females in different reproductive states

Observational data on the feeding and behavior of a semi free-ranging troop of mantled howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata mexicana) were collected and analyzed to determine whether differences exist in the nutritional composition of the diet of females at different reproductive states. The reproductive states selected for study were non-gestation (control), gestation, and lactation. Mean ingestion was calculated in grams/day and...

Nutrient composition of selected plant species consumed by semi free-ranging lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus) and ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) on St. Catherines Island, Georgia, U.S.A.

Feeding behavior in two groups of semi free-ranging primates, lion tailed macaques (LTM) (Macaca silenus, n = 9) and ring-tailed lemurs (RTL) (Lemur catta, n = 13), residing on St. Catherines Island, GA, was observed seasonally at quarterly intervals for 1 year. Each group had unlimited access to native flora and fauna in addition to a daily provisioned diet; LTM...

Chemical composition of Southeast Asian Colobine foods

Digestive disturbances have been considered a major health issue among captive colobines [Janssen, 1994; Calle et al., 1995]. Inadequate or inappropriate fiber sources may underlie some of these problems. Apart from maintaining normal gastrointestinal function [Van Soest, 1994 ], one critical issue in husbandry of these species is the necessity of providing a suitable diet for supporting pregastric [Stevens, 1988]...

Application of a Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIR) to measure protein, fat and moisture in fish samples

Quality control programs need methods for simple and rapid analysis of feeds and ingredients. Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) and Transmission (NIT) Spectroscopy have been previously used for the analyses of fish carcasses (Gjerde and Mathias. 1987; Valdes et al.. 1989 and Downey. 1995). NIR was applied to measure percent fat, protein and moisture in fish samples used for food in...

Effects of Diet on Nutritional Content of Prey Species fed to Captive Raptors

We measured proximate composition (moisture, lipid, protein, ash), vitamin A and vitamin E content, and six minerals (Cu, Fe, Zn, Mg, Mn, Ca) in quail, rats, mice and guinea pigs raised on at least two different diets per species. The objectives of this work were 1) to assess the variability of nutrient composition in some commonly used, commercially available diets,...

Comparison of diets fed to South-East Asian Colobines in North American and European Zoos Versus Natural Diets

Comparison of diets fed to South-East Asian Colobines in North American and European Zoos Versus Natural Diets Joeke Nijboer1 and Ellen S. Dierenfeld2 1 Rotterdam Zoo, Rotterdam, Netherlands 2 Wildlife Conservation Society, Bronx, New York In May and June 1994 a survey of diets fed to south-east Asian colobines in captivity in European (n = 12) and North American (n...