Utilization of zoo interns

The field of nutrition in the zoo community is still in its infancy with many an unsolved riddle lying ahead. One tool that has been effective in aiding the collection of nutritional information has been a collaborative internship program between the Denver Zoological Gardens and Colorado State University .The internship program allows nutritionally-related projects to be completed at little cost,...

A streamlined procedure for the determination of trace elements in foods

Considerable analytical challenges were imposed on food chemists when Congress passed the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990 (NLEA). When this law was ratified, labeling of fourteen food nutrients became mandatory, and thirty-four others voluntary. Many Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) validated methods for foods are matrix or analyte specific. Developing rugged, generic methodology for all foods became...

Specialty animal feed manufacturing

For purposes of this talk, I will consider “specialty” feeds to be any animal diets other than the traditional agricultural (swine, poultry, cattle) or pet food (dog or cat) markets. This encompasses a broad range of terrestrial and aquatic animals, including birds, mammals, fish, crustaceans, and insects-each species with its own particular nutritional requirements.

Chemical composition of Southeast Asian Colobine foods

Digestive disturbances have been considered a major health issue among captive colobines [Janssen, 1994; Calle et al., 1995]. Inadequate or inappropriate fiber sources may underlie some of these problems. Apart from maintaining normal gastrointestinal function [Van Soest, 1994 ], one critical issue in husbandry of these species is the necessity of providing a suitable diet for supporting pregastric [Stevens, 1988]...

Secondary compounds in foods selected by free-ranging primates on St. Catherines Island, GA

The foraging behavior of two groups of free-ranging primates, ring-tailed lemurs (Lemur catta) and lion-tailed macaques (Macaca silenus), residing on St. Catherines Island Wildlife Center, Georgia was observed seasonally at quarterly intervals for one year. Each group (N=13, N=9, respectively) had unlimited access to native flora and fauna in addition to a daily provisional diet. Representative samples of non-provisioned items...

Pyramiding is not caused by excess calcium and/or phosphorus in young Red-eared sliders, Trachemys scripta elegans

Pyramiding, is a condition in which the scutes of the carapace of turtles become deformed and elevated, taking on a pyramid shape. Pyramiding is believed to be a nutritional problem, however its exact cause is unknown. Given that the turtle carapace is composed largely of bone, it was hypothesized that it may be caused by an imbalance in dietary calcium...

Do new world primates really have elevated needs for protein and Vitamin D?

Phylogenetic variation in nutrient requirements is of both theoretical and practical interest. Although all vertebrates are thought to require a similar set of nutrients, quantitative needs can vary in relation to digestive, physiologic and reproductive performance (Allen and Oftedal, 1996). For example, among primates it is likely that the nutrient requirements of colobine monkeys such as colobus (Colobus) and langurs...

Advances in nutrient metals digestion using open and closed vessel microwave systems

Rapid technologically evolution in sensor, computer, and vessel enhancements have led to lower detection limits and residual carbon values for both open and closed vessel microwave techniques. Application of these technologies to the determination of nutrient metals (as well as nitrogen content) of food and feeds has shown that both high level (Fe, Zn, Cu) and important trace (Se, As,...

Non-invasive methods for nutritional research at the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust

This poster/paper presents a review of nutritional research at the Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust (JWPT). JWPT is an international conservation organization working to save animals from extinction. At present JWPT does not employ a full-time nutritionists and yet in recent years at least 16 species have been the focus of nutritional research, a list which includes reptile, birds and mammals....

Application of a Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIR) to measure protein, fat and moisture in fish samples

Quality control programs need methods for simple and rapid analysis of feeds and ingredients. Near Infrared Reflectance (NIR) and Transmission (NIT) Spectroscopy have been previously used for the analyses of fish carcasses (Gjerde and Mathias. 1987; Valdes et al.. 1989 and Downey. 1995). NIR was applied to measure percent fat, protein and moisture in fish samples used for food in...

Hand-rearing hoofstock: a team approach

There are many reasons for hand-rearing neonatal hoofstock in captivity. From 1989 until 1992 the Fort Worth Zoo had no male springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis) or dama gazelles (Gazella dama). In 1993, when males were added to these herds, offspring began to be produced. Calves were rejected by first time mothers who had also been hand-reared, and by dams with a...

Development of hand-rearing techniques for Roseate Spoonbills, Ajaia ajaja, at the Fort Worth Zoo

The Fort Worth Zoo has held a breeding flock of roseate spoonbills (Ajaia ajaja), since the 1960’s and has had more success breeding and parent-rearing roseate spoonbills (Ajaia ajaja), than any other institution worldwide. To infuse new genetic material into the North American population, Fort Worth began collecting hatchlings and eggs from free-ranging birds for hand- rearing. Fledglings were first...

Nutritional status of goats used in controlling forestry underbrush vegetation

The nutritional status of goats used in a forest vegetation control was evaluated by the performance of goats in two field trials conducted in 1995 and 1996. Nutritional status of the goats was determined by assessing weight gain performance and the composition of the forages consumed. Six 0.202 ha (132.68 m x 15.25 m) forest paddocks were assigned in a...

Food, behavioral enrichment, and primates: some guidelines

Primates are prominent animals in captive collections. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) mandates that dealers, exhibitors, and research facilities develop, document and follow an appropriate plan for environment enhancement adequate to promote the psychological well-being of nonhuman primates (APHIS, USDA 1992). Zoos have long recognized the importance of enrichment for captive primates. Most zoos use food as a...

Fish Composition: Effects of fish preparation and analytical methods

It is important to determine the nutrient content of fish fed to piscivorous species to ensure the animals are receiving an appropriate diet. The results of chemical analyses for nutrients can be affected by various factors including collection of a representative sample, sample preparation methodology, and laboratory and instrument variation. The objective of this project was to determine the effects...

Evolution of diets for Herbivorous and Omnivorous Reptiles at the Philadelphia Zoo: From Mystery Toward Science

At the Philadelphia Zoo the diets for herbivorous and omnivorous reptiles evolved over a period of years. Prior to 1992. the diets had been formulated solely by the former curator. Analysis of the general salad fed to smaller species of herbivorous and omnivorous reptiles (Animal Nutritionist – N-2) indicated unbalanced levels of fat-soluble vitamins. In addition. one of the salad’s...

Some basic considerations in evaluating mineral nutrition

Diets which are balanced in their nutrient content is key to good nutrition. While reasonable balance is important with all nutrients, proportion or balance is critically sensitive for certain minerals. When feeding diets where dietary mineral composition is unknown, utilizing mineral supplements which contain minerals in proportion to the needs of the species involved will draw the total diet toward...

Establishment of a zoological browse data base

Browse, a significant source of nutrition and enrichment for captive animals, is becoming increasingly important and more widely used. Browse includes leaves and twigs from shrubs, trees and herbaceous plants. It is supplemented to a wide range of captive animals including hoofstock, primates, pachyderms, marsupials and even avian species. Despite the importance of browse as a supplemental feed and enrichment...

Evaluation of eight species of native Texas browse as suitable forage substitutes for black rhinoceros (Dieros bicornis)

Duplication of natural foodstuffs for animals in captivity can be a difficult task. While it may not be possible to provide food sources normally available in an animal’ s natural habitat, a prospective goal might be to provide similar nutrients from locally available foods. Eight species of native Texas browse were studied for adequacy as a source of browse for...

Digestive efficiency and passage rate in two propithecus species fed in a captive diet

The objective was to measure dry matter intake(DMI), digestibility, transit time (TT) and mean retention time (MRT) in captive P. v. coquereli (n=5, 3.7 ( 0.3kg) and P. tattersalli (n=2, 3.2 ( 0.03kg) while being fed a diet consisting of Mazuri Leafeater Primate Chow at 85% of DMI and sumac (Rhus copallina) at 15% of DMI. After a six-week diet...

The influence of dietary fiber on digestibility, passage rate, and body mass in captive baboons (Papio Anubis)

This was a preliminary study in which nutrient digestibility, digesta passage rate and body mass were determined for a captive group of baboons (Papio anubis). The group consisted of 6 adult, nonpregnant females. Three experimental diets, varying in acid detergent fiber (ADF) content, were fed. The fiber content of the experiment diets was: diet1=10.45% ADF, diet2=18.30% ADF and diet3=30.40% ADF.

Efficacy of chelated minerals; review of literature

The recent report (Leach and Patton, 1997) of an assay procedure for chelated minerals removes an obstacle that has long hindered consideration of chelates by the animal feed industry. In the absence of a reliable assay, it is understandable that some would hesitate to embrace a technology that’s existence could not be proven empirically. Nonetheless, circumstantial evidence kept most minds...

Maintenance of captive black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) on indigenous browse in Zimbabwe: nutrition and energetics

Poor nutrition has been implicated as a key factor contributing to the high levals of morbidity and mortality seen in captive populations of black rhinoceros, Diceros bicornis (Kock et al, 1992; Miller, 1993). The translocation of four adult black rhinos (2 males, 2 females) to the Intensive Management Center at Sinamatella, Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe, in January 1995 led to...

Canned petfood products: a summary of the process and formulation/development considerations

Canned petfood represents one of the oldest forms of commercially manufactured pet care products. While consumers have increasingly shifted their buying patterns to dry kibble products in recent years, canned petfood still offers the consumer and pet many positive attributes not found in dry products. In fact, many consumers combine the positive attributes of both dry and canned products by...