Hay and Pellet Ratios: Considerations in Feeding Ungulates

Formulating appropriate diets for zoo animals is a complex and challenging job, especially when formulating diets for the many types of herbivores. Herbivore feeding strategies include animals in a continuum from selectors of fruit and dicotyledon foliage (concentrate selectors) to unselective grazers of high fiber diets (grass and roughage eaters).18 Body size and digestive tract morphology are adapted to these...

Feeding captive piscivorous animals: nutritional aspects of fish as food.

Piscivory is a term which specifically refers to the consumption of fish, but for the purposes of this document also encompasses a variety of organisms including marine invertebrates. Fish and marine invertebrates are prevalent constituents in the diets of a diversity of captive animals. Appropriate selection, purchase, storage, and thawing of these products is critical to the successful husbandry and...

Feeding captive insectivorous animals: nutritional aspects of insects as food

To successfully manage captive insectivorous species, data on nutritional composition of invertebrate prey are especially important. Since live insects may be the only food offered to some species, nutritional deficiencies can quickly arise if the nutrient levels in the live prey are imbalanced. Unfortunately, the few commercially available invertebrates are an incomplete nutrient package without appropriate supplementation, and may adversely...

Hay Quality Evaluation

Hay is the foundation of dietary husbandry for most captive herbivores, and its quality determines the need for other feeds. Quality can be high, low, or in between, but standards that are appropriate for hay fed to lactating dairy cows may be different than standards for hay fed to mature elephants. Hay that is high in protein and low in...