Sullivan K, Livingston S, Kerr K, Williams S, Valdes EV. 2015. Common aquatic ingredient nutrient analyses: balancing practical feeding with long term aquatic health. In Bissell H, Brooks M Eds. Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference on Zoo and Wildlife Nutrition, AZA Nutrition Advisory Group, Portland, OR.
Optimizing dietary formulations for aquatic species is one of the most challenging aspects of nutrition for exotics. Whether designing diets for elasmobranches, fish in a multi-species aquarium, or marine mammals, understanding the nutrients provided in the food is essential. Ideally, designing aquatic diets utilizes both known body weights of the target species, and analyzed nutrient contents of diet items. Repercussions of overfeeding in an aquatic system can lead to water quality issues, and ultimately poorly understood compromised health in the occupants. While aquatic diets historically have been designed primarily based on energy needs, vitamins and mineral content should also be considered, especially for long term health.43_Sullivan3.pdf     44 KB