Sullivan K, van Heugten E, Ange-van Heugten K, Dierenfeld E, Wolfe B. 2005. Survey of nutrient concentrations in the diet, serum, and urine of giraffe maintained in North American zoos. In Graffam W, Hellinga D, Maslanka M, Ward A, Eds. Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Zoo and Wildlife Nutrition, AZA Nutrition Advisory Group, Omaha, NE.
In order to elucidate the causes of urolithiasis in giraffe, a comprehensive survey was initiated in September 2004 of giraffe within North American zoological institutions. Giraffe feeding practices and medical histories were examined, and holding institutions were recruited to submit samples of feeds, water, serum, urine and feces, and asked to participate in a feeding trial.Sullivan – SURVEY OF NUTRIENT CONCENTRATIONS IN THE DIET, SERUM, AND URINE OF GIRAFFE MAINTAINED IN NORTH AMERICAN ZOOS.pdf     125 KB