Slifka KA, Jacobsen KL. 2005. Polar bears: aspects of handrearing. In Graffam W, Hellinga D, Maslanka M, Ward A, Eds. Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Zoo and Wildlife Nutrition, AZA Nutrition Advisory Group, Omaha, NE.
Zoos faced with the issue of handrearing polar bear cubs have found success with various formulas. Despite many common ingredients in zoos’ polar bear milk replacers, adjustments were made to accommodate specific medical or nutritional needs of the cub(s), and consequently there were differences in solids/energy offered and weaning age. Cubs from three institutions (San Francisco, Brookfield, and San Diego Zoos) were successfully raised to weaning using different formulas; this paper briefly compares the formulas themselves and methods for weaning.SlifkaPolarHRFINAL14Aug.05.1.pdf     267 KB