Irlbeck NA. 2005. Evaluation of zoological hoofstock supplements. In Graffam W, Hellinga D, Maslanka M, Ward A, Eds. Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Zoo and Wildlife Nutrition, AZA Nutrition Advisory Group, Omaha, NE.
Traditionally, U.S. zoos have fed two types of forage to exotic hoofstock species, primarily a legume (usually alfalfa, Medicago sativa) or grass hay(s). In addition to the forage, a grain supplement is added primarily as a carrier for vitamins and minerals, but also for supplemental energy. This has been the diet of choice for most ruminant and non-ruminant species with varying amounts and types of forage matched with grain to meet physiologic needs. Other than the occurrence of specialized versions of browser diets, that feeding regime has been the mainstay of U.S. zoos for hoofstock species. In addition to crude protein differences, the content of several macrominerals found in alfalfa and grass hays varies significantly.Irlbeck – EVALUATION OF ZOOLOGICAL HOOFSTOCK SUPPLEMENTS.pdf     76 KB