Schmidt D, Mulkerin D, Boehm D, Lu Z, Ellersieck M, Campbell M, Chen T, Holick M. 2005. Preliminary report on the quantification of ultraviolet-B radiation from artificial light sources over time. In Graffam W, Hellinga D, Maslanka M, Ward A, Eds. Proceedings of the Sixth Conference on Zoo and Wildlife Nutrition, AZA Nutrition Advisory Group, Omaha, NE.
The term “metabolic bone disease” encompasses a variety of bone-related diseases, including rickets, osteomalacia, osteopenia, and osteoporosis, all of which are associated with a weakening of bone structure. Metabolic bone disease is considered a serious health problem among certain species of captive reptiles. The occurrence of metabolic bone disease is believed to be due to insufficient concentrations of circulating vitamin D, which is necessary for calcium absorption. If vitamin D deficiency is a chronic problem, the body begins mobilizing calcium stores from bone to satisfy the requirement for circulating plasma calcium concentrations.SchmidtUVbulbsFINAL14Aug.05.pdf     86 KB