Feeding the immune system: energy and protein needs for immunocompetence
Humphrey B, D’Amato J. 2007. Feeding the immune system: energy and protein needs for immunocompetence. In Ward A, Hunt A, Maslanka M, Eds. Proceedings of the Seventh Conference on Zoo and Wildlife Nutrition, AZA Nutrition Advisory Group, Knoxville, TN.
The immune system utilizes a combination of constitutive and adaptive mechanisms that interact with one another to protect the host from microorganisms and infectious disease. Constitutive defenses of the innate immune system consist of effector cells, such as monocytes/macrophages and neutrophils, along with mucosal and epithelial barriers, secretions and plasma acute phase proteins. The innate immune system is capable of recognizing foreign invaders, i.e. non-self, and functions as the first line of defense against these potential disease causing microorganisms, or pathogens. The adaptive arm of the immune system is capable of selectively recognizing and eliminating foreign microorganisms or molecules. These functions are mediated by immunoglobulin secretion by B lymphocytes and various cellular functions mediated by T lymphocytes, collectively referred to as humoral and cell mediated immunity, respectively. Both humoral and cell mediated immunity have tremendous diversity in their recognition molecules and their response to non-self results in immunological memory. Consequently, animal health and disease resistance is achieved through the collective actions of innate, humoral and cell mediated immunity.Humphrey – THE IMMUNE SYSTEM- ENERGY AND PROTEIN NEEDS FOR IMMUNOCOMPETENCE.pdf     2 MB