Iverson SJ. 2007. Milk composition and lactation strategies across mammalian taxa: implications for hand-rearing neonates. In Ward A, Hunt A, Maslanka M, Eds. Proceedings of the Seventh Conference on Zoo and Wildlife Nutrition, AZA Nutrition Advisory Group, Knoxville, TN.
The two major features of mammalian reproduction are viviparity and lactation (milk production); of these, only lactation is both unique to mammals and occurs in all living species of mammals. Milk is the complex lacteal secretion of the mammary gland responsible for the provision of nutrients and energy to the growing neonate. Once adopted during the course of mammalian evolution, milk secretion was universally retained. Some birds, including pigeons and doves, the greater flamingo, and the emperor penguin also produce nutritive fluids for the young, but their secretions are of crop or esophogeal origin, and are not the exclusive food of the young.Iverson-MILK COMPOSITION AND LACTATION STRATEGIES ACROSS MAMMALIAN TAXA- IMPLICATIONS FOR HAND-REARING NEONATES.pdf     3 MB