Miller M, Weber M, Valdes E, Fontenot D, Nieffer D, Robbins PK, Terrell S, Stetter M. 2003. Hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, and ruminitis in ungulates: an under-recognized syndrome?. In Ward A, Brooks M, Maslanka M, Eds. Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Zoo and Wildlife Nutrition, AZA Nutrition Advisory Group, Minneapolis, MN.
Macro- and microminerals are critical in maintaining normal physiologic processes. Requirements for domestic ungulates have been documented and are available through the National Research Council (NRC). Normal values have not been established for most wildlife species. Due to specialized feeding habits, collection of baseline data for each species is needed to develop complete diets and detect nutritional diseases. Several cases of hypomagnesemia in captive ungulates are described in this report.AAZV_Miller.pdf     116 KB