Dierenfeld ES, Walsh MT, Murru F. 2003. Serum survey of Vitamins A and E in Sharks. In Ward A, Brooks M, Maslanka M, Eds. Proceedings of the Fifth Conference on Zoo and Wildlife Nutrition, AZA Nutrition Advisory Group, Minneapolis, MN.
Although sharks are known to have unique aspects of lipid metabolism, fat-soluble vitamin concentrations have not been widely reported in the literature. Serum or plasma samples were obtained from eight species of sharks: black-tipped (Carcharhinus brevipinna; n=1), bonnethead (Sphyrna tiburo; n=7), brown (C. plumbeus; n=16), bull (C. leucas; n=14), lemon (Negaprion brevirostis; n=30), nurse (Ginglymostoma cirratum; n=14), sand tiger (Carcharias taurus; n=45), and tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier, wild-caught only; n=3). With the exception of bonnethead sharks, circulating concentrations of both nutrients were considerably lower than expected compared with other carnivorous vertebrates.03NAG_pp50-5163.pdf     112 KB