Renecker LA. 2001. Nutrition of the enigmatic browser: Comparative bioenergetics, digestion and feeding of northern versus tropical ungulates. In Edwards M, Lisi KJ, Schlegel ML, Bray RE, Eds., Proceedings of the Fourth Conference on Zoo and Wildlife Nutrition, AZA Nutrition Advisory Group, Lake Buena Vista, FL.
Wild ungulates use time, habitat, and food in complex ways in relation to social, security, comfort, and bioenergetic needs to optimization fitness from decisions during day-to-day living. Species in highly seasonal environments experience changes in nutritional requirements in association with adaptations to quality and quantity of available food. Evolutionary implications are closely tied to seasonal bioenergetic cycles and become extremely important in understanding survival strategies and nutritional food habits. Concomitantly, food habits are linked to digestive morphology and processing which can become very specialized for the browser. Captive feeding programs must integrate the browser nutritional needs, seasonal bioenergetic cycles, and specific adaptations that relate to a specific body size.Renecker – Nutrition Of The Enigmatic Browser- Comparative Bioenergetics, Digestion And Feeding Of Northern Versus Tropical Ungulates.pdf     2 MB