Crissey SD, Meehan TP, Langman C, Pruetta-Jones MA. 1999. Vitamin D metabolites 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D and Kidney function indices and the relationship to diet in Goeldi’s monkeys (Callimico goeldii). Zoo Biology 18:565–574.
In Brookfield Zoo’s Goeldi’s monkey colony, a large number of deaths related to renal disease has been documented. Review of post-mortem results from Goeldi’s monkeys in the past 20 years revealed that in deaths of animals over 18 months of age, renal disease was a primary pathologic diagnosis. Although the nutrient requirements of Goeldi’s monkeys have not been described, these primates have been fed a diet containing a commercial marmoset diet that contained vitamin D3 at concentrations approximately seven times that of the traditional canned primate diet. The purpose of this study was to examine the vitamin D status of these animals and, if possible, link it with indices of kidney function. Samples were collected from 56 animals ranging from 18 months to 16 years of age. These samples were analyzed for blood urea nitrogen (BUN):creatinine ratio, BUN, creatinine, hemoglobin, hematocrit, sodium, uric acid, calcium, phosphorus, bilirubin, protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, chloride, and vitamin D metabolites; 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D. Blood values showed some significant differences among animals. Many of the differences were linked with age and gender. Males had higher BUN than females and the ratios of BUN to creatinine were higher than in females. This points to a potentially greater problem in males with respect to kidney function. The youngest animals had higher 25(OH)D than older animals and females had higher 1,25(OH2)D than males. The absolute levels of vitamin D metabolites were lower than those previously reported for Callitrichids. Conclusions were that 1) this Goeldi’s monkey population had kidney dysfunction to some level, especially in males, 2) vitamin D metabolites normally found in Goeldi’s monkeys were lower than other New World monkeys, 3) although dietary vitamin D did not cause the renal problems, the renal dysfunction may have influenced the vitamin D metabolites.
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